Next Article in Journal
Model for the Patterns of Salt-Spray-Induced Chloride Corrosion in Concretes under Coupling Action of Cyclic Loading and Salt Spray Corrosion
Next Article in Special Issue
Modeling, Management, and Control of an Autonomous Wind/Fuel Cell Micro-Grid System
Previous Article in Journal
Agent-Based Simulation of Value Flow in an Industrial Production Process
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Processes 2019, 7(2), 83;

Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Typical Cathode Materials of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Three LCA Approaches

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Process Control of Fuel Cell Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2906 KB, uploaded 5 March 2019]   |  


With the rapid increase in production of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and environmental issues arising around the world, cathode materials, as the key component of all LIBs, especially need to be environmentally sustainable. However, a variety of life cycle assessment (LCA) methods increase the difficulty of environmental sustainability assessment. Three authoritative LCAs, IMPACT 2002+, Eco-indicator 99(EI-99), and ReCiPe, are used to assess three traditional marketization cathode materials, compared with a new cathode model, FeF3(H2O)3/C. They all show that four cathode models are ranked by a descending sequence of environmental sustainable potential: FeF3(H2O)3/C, LiFe0.98Mn0.02PO4/C, LiFePO4/C, and LiCoO2/C in total values. Human health is a common issue regarding these four cathode materials. Lithium is the main contributor to the environmental impact of the latter three cathode materials. At the midpoint level in different LCAs, the toxicity and land issues for LiCoO2/C, the non-renewable resource consumption for LiFePO4/C, the metal resource consumption for LiFe0.98Mn0.02PO4/C, and the mineral refinement for FeF3(H2O)3/C show relatively low environmental sustainability. Three LCAs have little influence on total endpoint and element contribution values. However, at the midpoint level, the indicator with the lowest environmental sustainability for the same cathode materials is different in different methodologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: LIBs; environmental sustainability; cathode material; LCA LIBs; environmental sustainability; cathode material; LCA

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Hu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Huang, K. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Typical Cathode Materials of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Three LCA Approaches. Processes 2019, 7, 83.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top