Next Article in Journal
Special Issue: Water Soluble Polymers
Previous Article in Journal
Structural Properties of Dynamic Systems Biology Models: Identifiability, Reachability, and Initial Conditions
Article

Closed-Loop Characterization of Neuronal Activation Using Electrical Stimulation and Optical Imaging

1
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2
Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
3
Laboratory for Neuroengineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
4
School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Henson
Processes 2017, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr5020030
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
We have developed a closed-loop, high-throughput system that applies electrical stimulation and optical recording to facilitate the rapid characterization of extracellular, stimulus-evoked neuronal activity. In our system, a microelectrode array delivers current pulses to a dissociated neuronal culture treated with a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye; automated real-time image processing of high-speed digital video identifies the neuronal response; and an optimized search routine alters the applied stimulus to achieve a targeted response. Action potentials are detected by measuring the post-stimulus, calcium-sensitive fluorescence at the neuronal somata. The system controller performs directed searches within the strength–duration (SD) stimulus-parameter space to build probabilistic neuronal activation curves. This closed-loop system reduces the number of stimuli needed to estimate the activation curves when compared to the more commonly used open-loop approach. This reduction allows the closed-loop system to probe the stimulus regions of interest in the multi-parameter waveform space with increased resolution. A sigmoid model was fit to the stimulus-evoked activation data in both current (strength) and pulse width (duration) parameter slices through the waveform space. The two-dimensional analysis results in a set of probability isoclines corresponding to each neuron–electrode pair. An SD threshold model was then fit to the isocline data. We demonstrate that a closed-loop methodology applied to our imaging and micro-stimulation system enables the study of neuronal excitation across a large parameter space. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular electrical stimulation; closed-loop; strength-duration; micro-electrode array (MEA); dissociated culture; activation curve; optical recording extracellular electrical stimulation; closed-loop; strength-duration; micro-electrode array (MEA); dissociated culture; activation curve; optical recording
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kuykendal, M.L.; Guvanasen, G.S.; Potter, S.M.; Grover, M.A.; DeWeerth, S.P. Closed-Loop Characterization of Neuronal Activation Using Electrical Stimulation and Optical Imaging. Processes 2017, 5, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr5020030

AMA Style

Kuykendal ML, Guvanasen GS, Potter SM, Grover MA, DeWeerth SP. Closed-Loop Characterization of Neuronal Activation Using Electrical Stimulation and Optical Imaging. Processes. 2017; 5(2):30. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr5020030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuykendal, Michelle L., Gareth S. Guvanasen, Steve M. Potter, Martha A. Grover, and Stephen P. DeWeerth. 2017. "Closed-Loop Characterization of Neuronal Activation Using Electrical Stimulation and Optical Imaging" Processes 5, no. 2: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr5020030

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop