Next Article in Journal
From Single Microparticles to Microfluidic Emulsification: Fundamental Properties (Solubility, Density, Phase Separation) from Micropipette Manipulation of Solvent, Drug and Polymer Microspheres
Next Article in Special Issue
Model Predictive Control of the Exit Part Temperature for an Austenitization Furnace
Previous Article in Journal
The Influence of Viscosity on the Static and Dynamic Properties of PS-PEO Covered Emulsion Drops
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Study of Explorative Moves during Modifier Adaptation with Quadratic Approximation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Online Optimization Applied to a Shockless Explosion Combustor

Department of Process Technology, Measurement and Control, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Department of Fluid Dynamics and Technical Acoustics, Herman Föttinger Institute, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Department of Mathematics, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dominique Bonvin
Processes 2016, 4(4), 48;
Received: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Optimization)
PDF [3463 KB, uploaded 30 November 2016]


Changing the combustion process of a gas turbine from a constant-pressure to a pressure-increasing approximate constant-volume combustion (aCVC) is one of the most promising ways to increase the efficiency of turbines in the future. In this paper, a newly proposed method to achieve such an aCVC is considered. The so-called shockless explosion combustion (SEC) uses auto-ignition and a fuel stratification to achieve a spatially homogeneous ignition. The homogeneity of the ignition can be adjusted by the mixing of fuel and air. A proper filling profile, however, also depends on changing parameters, such as temperature, that cannot be measured in detail due to the harsh conditions inside the combustion tube. Therefore, a closed-loop control is required to obtain an adequate injection profile and to reject such unknown disturbances. For this, an optimization problem is set up and a novel formulation of a discrete extremum seeking controller is presented. By approximating the cost function with a parabola, the first derivative and a Hessian matrix are estimated, allowing the controller to use Newton steps to converge to the optimal control trajectory. The controller is applied to an atmospheric test rig, where the auto-ignition process can be investigated for single ignitions. In the set-up, dimethyl ether is injected into a preheated air stream using a controlled proportional valve. Optical measurements are used to evaluate the auto-ignition process and to show that using the extremum seeking control approach, the homogeneity of the ignition process can be increased significantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: shockless explosion combustion; constant volume combustion; extremum seeking control shockless explosion combustion; constant volume combustion; extremum seeking control

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schäpel, J.-S.; Reichel, T.G.; Klein, R.; Paschereit, C.O.; King, R. Online Optimization Applied to a Shockless Explosion Combustor. Processes 2016, 4, 48.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top