Voltage-Based Hybrid Algorithm Using Parameter Variations and Stockwell Transform for Islanding Detection in Utility Grids
- An islanding detection method (IDM) based on the use of voltage signals is proposed in this paper.
- Features extracted from the voltage signal using the ST and rate of change in RMS voltage are used to define a voltage-based islanding recognition factor (IRFV).
- Islanding events are discriminated from the faulty and operational events using simple decision rules based on the peak magnitude of IRFV.
- Proposed IDM is effective to detect islanding events with minimum NDZ.
- Proposed IDM is more effective compared to the method based on the rate of change in voltage and a discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based method.
2. Test Grid of IEEE-13 Nodes
2.1. Solar PV System
2.2. Wind Power Plant
3. Proposed Voltage-Based Algorithm for Identification of Islanding Events
- Record the voltage waveform and root mean square (RMS) values of the voltage (VR) at IRL node.
- Compute the median of the columns of the matrix SV and assigned symbol median-based islanding recognition factor (MIRF), which is defined in the Equation (2).
- Compute the rate of change in RMS voltage (ROCOV) and assign the symbol voltage rate of change in islanding recognition factor (VRCIRF). This is achieved by differentiating the voltage signal with respect to time. VRCIRF is defined in the Equation (3).
- Compute the voltage-based islanding recognition factor (IRFV) by multiplying the MIRF and VRCIRF element to element, as detailed below. Here, WFV is the voltage-based weight factor. WFV is considered equal to the 1000 for this study.
- Set the threshold magnitudes TMV1 and TMV2 equal to 50 and 300, respectively, for the IRFV. If peak magnitude of IRFV is less than TMV1, then the event is an operational event. For peak magnitudes of IRFV between the TMV1 and TMV2, the event is islanding. However, if the peak magnitude of IRFV is greater than the TMV2 then the event is faulty in nature.
3.1. Stockwell Transform
3.2. Decision Tree Rules
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Healthy Condition without Any Disturbance
4.2. Recognition of Islanding Events
4.2.1. Islanding with Wind and Solar Energy Production
4.2.2. Islanding with Wind Energy Production
4.2.3. Islanding with Solar Energy Production
4.3. Faulty Events
4.3.1. Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault
4.3.2. Two-Phase Fault
4.3.3. Two-Phase-to-Ground Fault
4.3.4. Three-Phase Fault with Ground
4.4. Operational Events
4.4.1. Outage of Wind Power Plant from Test Grid
4.4.2. Outage of Solar Power Plant from Test Grid
4.4.3. Synchronization of SPP to Grid
4.4.4. Synchronization of WPP to Grid
4.4.5. Feeder Operation
4.4.6. Capacitor Switching
4.4.7. Load Switching
5. Identification of Non-Detection Zone
6. Classification of Events
7. Performance Comparison of Algorithm
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Nodes of Test Distribution Grid||Load Connected at Various Nodes of Test Distribution Grid||Capacitor Banks at Various Nodes of Test Distribution Grid (kVAr)|
|Transformer||Transformer MVA Rating||kV-HV Winding Transformer||kV-LV Winding Transformer||HV Winding||LV Winding|
|R (Ω)||X (Ω)||R (Ω)||X (Ω)|
|ΔP (kW)||Voltage (pu)|
|S. No.||Type of Event||Peak Magnitude of IRFV|
|1||Healthy condition without any disturbance.||0.03|
|2||Islanding event in the presence of both wind and solar power generation.||105.04|
|3||Islanding event in the presence of wind power generation.||141.63|
|4||Islanding event in the presence of solar power generation.||242.60|
|8||Three-phase fault with ground.||399.40|
|9||Outage of wind power plant.||2.09|
|10||Outage of solar power plant.||3.14|
|11||Synchronization of SPP.||32.81|
|12||Synchronization of WPP.||26.49|
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Mahela, O.P.; Sharma, Y.; Ali, S.; Khan, B.; Garg, A.R. Voltage-Based Hybrid Algorithm Using Parameter Variations and Stockwell Transform for Islanding Detection in Utility Grids. Informatics 2021, 8, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics8020021
Mahela OP, Sharma Y, Ali S, Khan B, Garg AR. Voltage-Based Hybrid Algorithm Using Parameter Variations and Stockwell Transform for Islanding Detection in Utility Grids. Informatics. 2021; 8(2):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics8020021Chicago/Turabian Style
Mahela, Om Prakash, Yagya Sharma, Shoyab Ali, Baseem Khan, and Akhil Ranjan Garg. 2021. "Voltage-Based Hybrid Algorithm Using Parameter Variations and Stockwell Transform for Islanding Detection in Utility Grids" Informatics 8, no. 2: 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics8020021