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Informatics 2018, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics5030038

Self-Adaptive Multi-Sensor Activity Recognition Systems Based on Gaussian Mixture Models

Intelligent Embedded Systems Lab, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Germany
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Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Activity Recognition and Interaction)
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Abstract

Personal wearables such as smartphones or smartwatches are increasingly utilized in everyday life. Frequently, activity recognition is performed on these devices to estimate the current user status and trigger automated actions according to the user’s needs. In this article, we focus on the creation of a self-adaptive activity recognition system based on IMU that includes new sensors during runtime. Starting with a classifier based on GMM, the density model is adapted to new sensor data fully autonomously by issuing the marginalization property of normal distributions. To create a classifier from that, label inference is done, either based on the initial classifier or based on the training data. For evaluation, we used more than 10 h of annotated activity data from the publicly available PAMAP2 benchmark dataset. Using the data, we showed the feasibility of our approach and performed 9720 experiments, to get resilient numbers. One approach performed reasonably well, leading to a system improvement on average, with an increase in the F-score of 0.0053, while the other one shows clear drawbacks due to a high loss of information during label inference. Furthermore, a comparison with state of the art techniques shows the necessity for further experiments in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: Self-Adaptation; Sensor-Adaptation; Multi-Sensor system; Gaussian Mixture Models; Label inference; Label propagation Self-Adaptation; Sensor-Adaptation; Multi-Sensor system; Gaussian Mixture Models; Label inference; Label propagation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jänicke, M.; Sick, B.; Tomforde, S. Self-Adaptive Multi-Sensor Activity Recognition Systems Based on Gaussian Mixture Models. Informatics 2018, 5, 38.

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