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Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Children in 2019
Open AccessArticle

Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Glycemic Control and Lipids in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
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Children 2020, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7010008
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 18 January 2020
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been associated with a greater prevalence of risky behaviors and chronic health conditions, such as diabetes in adulthood. While adolescents with risk taking behaviors experience worsening of diabetic metabolic control, it is yet to be determined whether glycemic management in children and adolescents is negatively and independently influenced by ACEs. This study examines the relationship between ACEs in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and glycemic control, BMI and lipids. For such children, we hypothesized that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is positively correlated with ACE scores. Parents of children (age 2–18 years) with T1DM completed a validated ACE questionnaire. The associations between parent and child ACE score and HbA1c, lipids and BMI z-scores were assessed using linear regression. The prevalence of any ACE was 27.9% among children and 49.0% among parents. HbA1c was significantly higher in children who had exposure to three or more ACEs (β:0.63 (4.5 mmol/mol); p = 0.02), in those who had a parent exposed to four or more ACEs (β:0.87 (7.2 mmol/mol); p = 0.03), in children who had exposure to household incarceration (β:0.62 (4.4 mmol/mol); p = 0.05) and children who witnessed or had been victim of violence in the neighborhood (β:0.71 (5.4 mmol/mol); p = 0.02). ACEs were highly prevalent among children with T1DM and had a positive association with glycemic control. View Full-Text
Keywords: adult survivors of child adverse events; type 1 diabetes mellitus; hemoglobin A1C; dyslipidemias; obesity adult survivors of child adverse events; type 1 diabetes mellitus; hemoglobin A1C; dyslipidemias; obesity
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Iqbal, A.M.; Kumar, S.; Hansen, J.; Heyrman, M.; Spee, R.; Lteif, A. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Glycemic Control and Lipids in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. Children 2020, 7, 8.

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