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Open AccessArticle

Fundamental Motor Skills of Children in Deprived Areas of England: A Focus on Age, Gender and Ethnicity

Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 2DS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2018, 5(8), 110;
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
This study compared the mastery of fundamental motor skills (FMS) of males and females in early-childhood (four to five years, n = 170) and in middle-childhood (nine to ten years, n = 109) who attend schools in deprived and ethnically diverse areas of England. Process FMS (object control and locomotor skills) were observed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Sprint speed over 10 meters and jump distance assessments were conducted using light gates and tape measures. A gender (male vs. female) by year-group (early-childhood vs. middle-childhood) interaction was shown for the process and product-oriented FMS measurements. Middle-childhood males and females demonstrated significantly greater FMS mastery, as compared to early-childhood (p < 0.05). Furthermore, middle-childhood males demonstrated significantly greater mastery of total FMS, object control skills, and product-oriented assessments, in comparison to females (p < 0.05). Children of Black and White ethnic groups achieved significantly greater mastery of locomotor skills, compared to Asian children, though this did not differ by year-group (p < 0.05). The results suggest that FMS development in deprived and ethnically diverse areas in England varies between genders during middle-childhood and ethnicity. Thus, interventions addressing the lack of FMS mastery achievement, shown in middle-childhood girls and children from Asian ethnic backgrounds, may be pivotal. Further exploration of the role of ethnicity would provide greater clarity in approaching interventions to improve FMS. View Full-Text
Keywords: fundamental motor skills; motor development; childhood; ethnicity fundamental motor skills; motor development; childhood; ethnicity
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Adeyemi-Walker, L.J.; Duncan, M.; Tallis, J.; Eyre, E. Fundamental Motor Skills of Children in Deprived Areas of England: A Focus on Age, Gender and Ethnicity. Children 2018, 5, 110.

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