|Roberts et al., 2007||Cases: 465 children with ASD.|
Controls: 6975 paired TD children
|Case-control study.||Residential proximity of sources of agricultural pesticides: organochlorines, organophosphates, tTrifluralin)||Children with ASD were identified through electronic files of the California Department of Developmental Services according the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-R)||In children of mothers living within 500 m of field sites (the fourth quartile vs. the lowest non-zero quartile of organochlorine poundage) to those with mothers not living near field sites the aOR was for ASD of 6.1 (95% CI: 2.4–15.3).|
|Roberts et al., 2013||Cases: 325 children with ASD|
(46 girls, 279 boys).
Controls: 22,101 TD children.
From all 50 U.S. states.
|Case-control study from the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort||US EPA concentrations of several pollutants according to residency: Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, all metals, diesel particulate, styrene, and methylene chloride.||ASD diagnosis validated by telephone administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI-R) to 50 randomly selected case mothers||Comparing the higher quintile score and the lowest quintile|
Lead: aOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.3
Manganese: aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2
Mercury: aOR = 2; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.
NickelL: aOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5
Cadmium: aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1
Total metals: aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3
Styrene: aOR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1
Methylenechloride: aOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2,2.8
Diesel particulate: aOR = 2; 95% CI: 1.0,4.0
|Shelton et al., 2014||486 cases (children with ASD) and 316 controls (TD children)|
|Case–control study||Proximity of homes to agricultural pesticides is used to estimate pesticide exposure using the Pesticide Use Report (PUR). Pesticides included are organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, organochlorates and chlorpyrifos||Children are administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), combined with the ADI-R||Residential proximity (within 1.5 km) to agricultural pesticides it was compared with binary (1 = exposed vs. 0 = not exposed) indicators during pregnancy and his association with ASD|
Organophosphate pesticides: aOR = 2.07; (95% CI: 1.23, 3.50)
Chlorpyrifos: aOR = 3.31; (95% CI: 1.48, 7.42)
Pyrethroids: aOR 1.87; (95% CI: 1.02, 3.43)
|Talbott et al., 2015||217 cases (children with ASD) and two different control groups: 1) 224 matched TD children and 2) 5,007 controls generated from a random sample using birth certificates (BC).|
|Case–control study conducted by the EPA-NATA||Exposure to arsenic, chromium, methylene chloride, styrene, lead, cyanide, PAHs among other from ambient air pollution concentrations are estimated using modelled data from the 2005 NATA data.||ASD self-reported by family is diagnosed according to specific tests either such as ADOS or the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)||Comparing fourth to first quartile of exposures:|
Styrene aOR 1.61 (95% CI = 1.08–2.38)
Chromium aOR 1.60 (95% CI = 1.08–2.38).
Methylene chloride aOR 1.41; 95% CI = 0.96–2.07)
PAHs aOR 1.44; 95% CI = 0.98–2.11
Remaining compounds were not statistically significant.
|Volk et al., 2011||Cases: 304 children with ASD.|
Controls: 259 TD children.
|Case-control study based on the CHARGE study.||Residential proximity to a freeway during pregnancy as a surrogate for air pollution (traffic-related pollutants)||The diagnosis of ASD was evaluated from both the ADOS and the ADI-R||Residential proximity (≤309 m) was compared to distance to the nearest freeway during the third trimester of pregnancy and was associated with ASD in offspring (aOR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.16–4.42). No association with living close to other main roads during pregnancy and ASD.|
|von Ehrenstein et al., 2014||Cohort of children (n = 148,722) of which 768 were diagnosed with ASD.|
Los Angeles County, California
|Observational cohort study||1,3-butadiene, lead, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylenes, formaldehyde, and chlorinated solvents measured by community-based air-monitoring stationsin mothers residing at 5km from air-toxics during pregnancy.||ASD cases are identified through records maintained by the California Department of Developmental Services and diagnosed according the DSM IV-R||ASD increased risk per interquartile-range increase of exposures:|
1,3-butadiene: aOR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.18–2.15
Meta/para-xylene: aOR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.26–1.82
Lead: aOR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.23–1.81
Perchloroethylene: aOR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.09–1.80
Formaldehyde: aOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17–1.52
|Windham et al., 2006||Cases: 284 children with ASD.|
Controls: 657 TD children.
Born in 1994 and live in San Francisco.
|Case-control study||Exposure to 25 environmental pollutants is estimated by the US EPA according to place of residence.||The diagnosis of ASD is made by qualified medical professionals according to the criteria of DSM-IV||ASD risk in the upper quartiles of chemical concentrations compared with those below the median.|
Methylene chloride: aOR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.13
Trichloroethylene: aOR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.08
Vinyl chloride: aOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.25, 2.43
Cadmium: aOR 1.54; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.20
Mercury: aOR 1.92; 95% CI: 1.36, 2.71
Nickel: aOR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.06
Other exposures were not associated with ASD
|Windham et al., 2013||Parental occupation was obtained from birth certificates for 284|
children with autism and 659 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area (California)
|Case-control study||Self-reported occupation and industry exposures are coded into eight chemical groups (exhaust/combustion products, disinfectants, metals, pesticides, solvents, cooling fluids, and auto paint)||Autism cases are identified according the DSM-IV by qualified medical professionals||Mothers of children with ASD had a higher probability (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.2) of working in occupations considered exposed compared to mothers of controls (non-exposed).|
The exposure categories of the greatest frequency among case mothers were exhaust and combustion products (aOR 12.0; 95% CI: 1.4, 104.6) and disinfectants (aOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.0).