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Correction: Esparham, A., et al., Pediatric Integrative Medicine: Vision for the Future. Children, 2018, 5, 111
Open AccessReview

A Review of Non-Pharmacological Treatments for Pain Management in Newborn Infants

1
Faculty of Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
2
Centre for the Studies of Asphyxia and Resuscitation, Neonatal Research Unit, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
3
School of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2031, Australia
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia
5
School of Women’s and Children’s Health University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia
6
Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2018, 5(10), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5100130
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementing Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Practice)
Pain is a major problem in sick newborn infants, especially for those needing intensive care. Pharmacological pain relief is the most commonly used, but might be ineffective and has side effects, including long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The effectiveness and safety of alternative analgesic methods are ambiguous. The objective was to review the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in newborn infants and to identify those that are the most effective. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms: “infant”, “premature”, “pain”, “acupuncture”, “skin-to-skin contact”, “sucrose”, “massage”, “musical therapy” and ‘breastfeeding’. We included 24 studies assessing different methods of non-pharmacological analgesic techniques. Most resulted in some degree of analgesia but many were ineffective and some were even detrimental. Sucrose, for example, was often ineffective but was more effective than music therapy, massage, breast milk (for extremely premature infants) or non-invasive electrical stimulation acupuncture. There were also conflicting results for acupuncture, skin-to-skin care and musical therapy. Most non-pharmacological methods of analgesia provide a modicum of relief for preterm infants, but none are completely effective and there is no clearly superior method. Study is also required to assess potential long-term consequences of any of these methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant; premature; pain; acupuncture; skin-to-skin contact; sucrose; massage; musical therapy; breastfeeding infant; premature; pain; acupuncture; skin-to-skin contact; sucrose; massage; musical therapy; breastfeeding
MDPI and ACS Style

Mangat, A.K.; Oei, J.-L.; Chen, K.; Quah-Smith, I.; Schmölzer, G.M. A Review of Non-Pharmacological Treatments for Pain Management in Newborn Infants. Children 2018, 5, 130.

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