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Children 2016, 3(4), 34;

Perinatal Risk Factors and Genu Valgum Conducive to the Onset of Growing Pains in Early Childhood

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Thriasio General Hospital—NHS, G. Gennimata av, Magoula 19600, Athens, Greece
Second Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Konstantopoulio General Hospital and Medical School, University of Athens, Athens 14233, Greece
Third Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, KAT General Hospital and Medical School, University of Athens, Kifissia 14561, Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carl L. von Baeyer
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic and Recurrent Pain)
Full-Text   |   PDF [230 KB, uploaded 18 November 2016]


The most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder of childhood with unclear aetiology is growing pains (GPs). Anatomic deformities and factors that change bone turnover are implicated in GP pathophysiology. Perinatal risk factors alter the bone metabolism affecting the bone mineral density and content. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between GPs, knock knees and perinatal factors. The examined population consisted of 276 children aged 3–7 years. Among them, ten pairs of dizygotic twins were evaluated. The data were collected by using a combination of semi-structured questionnaires, clinical examinations and medical charts of the children and the obstetric history of the mothers. A total of 78 children presenting GPs met Peterson’s criteria. Genu valgum severity was a significant factor for GP manifestation and for their increased frequency and intensity. Subsequently, perinatal factors regarding gestational age, Apgar score, head circumference (lower than 33 cm) and birth length or weight (smaller than 50 cm and 3000 g, respectively) made a remarkable contribution to the development of GPs. Conversely, antenatal corticosteroid treatment, increased maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy were not predictive of the disorder. Our data are potentially supportive for the “bone strength” theory and for the contribution of anatomical disturbances in GP appearance. View Full-Text
Keywords: growing pains; genu valgum; perinatal factors; bone metabolism growing pains; genu valgum; perinatal factors; bone metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kaspiris, A.; Chronopoulos, E.; Vasiliadis, E. Perinatal Risk Factors and Genu Valgum Conducive to the Onset of Growing Pains in Early Childhood. Children 2016, 3, 34.

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