Lifestyle Pathways Affecting Children’s Mental Health in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Participants and Survey Outline
2.3. Statistical Analyses
- The present study dealt only with lifestyle factors for which behavior can be changed through interventions at home and school. Consequently, only a small number of items were included, and other factors associated with children’s physical activity habits and PPH may have been omitted.
- This study is a cross-sectional study, and the data obtained were not assessed in terms of causality.
- An analysis utilizing a structural equation model with latent variables needs to be conducted to better determine how changes in children’s lifestyle factors and physical activity affect PPH.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Pre-Schoolers (n = 1183)||Elementary School Children (n = 3156)|
|Mean (SD)||Range||Cronbach’s α||Mean (SD)||Range||Cronbach’s α|
|1. Age (in years)||4.00 (0.80)||3–5||8.39 (1.68)||6–11|
|2. Sex (male: 1 and female: 2)||1.49 (0.50)||1–2||1.50 (0.50)||1–2|
|3. Total sleeping habits score||10.16 (2.09)||4–16||0.78||9.76 (2.07)||4–16||0.75|
|4. Total physical/psychosocial health score||22.16 (3.53)||8–28||0.71||21.43 (3.88)||7–28||0.72|
|5. Total physical activity score||12.07 (2.30)||4–16||0.76||11.38 (2.78)||4–16||0.78|
|6. Total life skills score||10.87 (2.61)||4–16||0.74||11.93 (2.69)||4–16||0.78|
|7. Total healthy diet score||5.12 (1.58)||2–8||0.77||5.91 (1.57)||2–8||0.71|
|1. Age (in years)||−0.03||−0.01||0.04||0.05||0.107 ‡||0.05|
(male: 1 and female: 2)
|3. Total sleeping habits score||−0.337 ‡||−0.100 ‡||0.109 ‡||0.155 ‡||0.140 ‡||0.122 ‡|
|4. Total PPH score||−0.117 ‡||−0.060 ‡||0.197 ‡||0.140 ‡||0.255 ‡||0.175 ‡|
|5. Total physical activity score||−0.193 ‡||−0.086 ‡||0.199 ‡||0.235 ‡||0.216 ‡||0.220 ‡|
|6. Total life skills score||0.130 ‡||0.207 ‡||0.063 ‡||0.194 ‡||0.123 ‡||0.367 ‡|
|7. Total healthy diet score||0.062 ‡||0.035 ‡||0.126 ‡||0.159 ‡||0.166 ‡||0.306 ‡|
|Age 3–5 years, n = 1183|
|Revised model (Figure 2)||11.896||9.000||0.219||0.997||0.991||0.994||0.017|
|Age 6–11 years, n = 3156|
|Revised model (Figure 3)||4.423||2.000||0.110||1.000||0.994||0.999||0.020|
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Sawa, S.; Hagihara, A. Lifestyle Pathways Affecting Children’s Mental Health in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Children 2023, 10, 943. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10060943
Sawa S, Hagihara A. Lifestyle Pathways Affecting Children’s Mental Health in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Children. 2023; 10(6):943. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10060943Chicago/Turabian Style
Sawa, Satomi, and Akihito Hagihara. 2023. "Lifestyle Pathways Affecting Children’s Mental Health in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic" Children 10, no. 6: 943. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10060943