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Children 2014, 1(3), 390-402;

Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Arizona , Tucson, AZ 85716, USA
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Integrative Medicine: An Emerging Field of Pediatrics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [224 KB, uploaded 3 November 2014]


Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic stress; early childhood adversity; resilience; relaxation response; pediatrics toxic stress; early childhood adversity; resilience; relaxation response; pediatrics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Franke, H.A. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment. Children 2014, 1, 390-402.

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