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COVID-19 Pathogenesis: From Molecular Pathway to Vaccine Administration

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Centre Cardiologique du Nord, 93200 Saint-Denis, France
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCSS, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Glasgow G81 4DY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Byeong Hwa Jeon
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 903;
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
The Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide. The advent of vaccines has permitted some restitution. Aside from the respiratory complications of the infection, there is also a thrombotic risk attributed to both the disease and the vaccine. There are no reliable data for the risk of thromboembolism in SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients managed out of the hospital setting. A literature review was performed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism of thrombosis from the SARS-CoV-2 infection including the role of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme receptors. The impact of the vaccine and likely mechanisms of thrombosis following vaccination were also clarified. Finally, the utility of the vaccines available against the multiple variants is also highlighted. The systemic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is still relatively poorly understood, but several risk factors have been identified. The roll-out of the vaccines worldwide has also allowed the lifting of lockdown measures and a reduction in the spread of the disease. The experience of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, has highlighted the crucial role of epidemiological research and the need for ongoing studies within this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; thromboembolism; ACE inhibition; pathophysiology SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; thromboembolism; ACE inhibition; pathophysiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nappi, F.; Iervolino, A.; Avtaar Singh, S.S. COVID-19 Pathogenesis: From Molecular Pathway to Vaccine Administration. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 903.

AMA Style

Nappi F, Iervolino A, Avtaar Singh SS. COVID-19 Pathogenesis: From Molecular Pathway to Vaccine Administration. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(8):903.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nappi, Francesco, Adelaide Iervolino, and Sanjeet S. Avtaar Singh 2021. "COVID-19 Pathogenesis: From Molecular Pathway to Vaccine Administration" Biomedicines 9, no. 8: 903.

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