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The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Campus Torribera, University of Barcelona, 08921 Sant Coloma de Gramanet, Spain
CIBER Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
CIBER (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red) 06/03: Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER) de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Lipid Clinic, Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d’Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition (Regicor Study Group), Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició Humana, 43201 Reus, Spain
Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Hospital Universitari San Joan de Reus, 43204 Reus, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Dong Kwon Yang and Giuseppina Basta
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 862;
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Diseases)
The intervention with the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern has evidenced short-term anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about its long-term anti-inflammatory properties at molecular level. This study aims to investigate the 3-year effect of MD interventions compared to low-fat diet (LFD) on changes on inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in a free-living population with a high-risk of cardiovascular disease (CD). Participants (n = 285) in the PREDIMED trial were randomly assigned into three intervention groups: MD with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) or MD-Nuts, and a LFD. Fourteen plasma inflammatory biomarkers were determined by Luminex assays. An additional pilot study of gene expression (GE) was determined by RT-PCR in 35 participants. After 3 years, both MDs showed a significant reduction in the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, hs-CRP, MCP-1, MIP-1β, RANTES, and ENA78 (p < 0.05; all). The decreased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α after MD significantly differed from those in the LFD (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed at the gene level after MD interventions, however, the GE of CXCR2 and CXCR3 tended to increase in the control LFD group (p = 0.09). This study supports the implementation of MD as a healthy long-term dietary pattern in the prevention of CD in populations at high cardiovascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary pattern; nutrition; inflammation; gene expression; cardiovascular diseases dietary pattern; nutrition; inflammation; gene expression; cardiovascular diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Urpi-Sarda, M.; Casas, R.; Sacanella, E.; Corella, D.; Andrés-Lacueva, C.; Llorach, R.; Garrabou, G.; Cardellach, F.; Sala-Vila, A.; Ros, E.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Fitó, M.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Estruch, R. The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 862.

AMA Style

Urpi-Sarda M, Casas R, Sacanella E, Corella D, Andrés-Lacueva C, Llorach R, Garrabou G, Cardellach F, Sala-Vila A, Ros E, Ruiz-Canela M, Fitó M, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R. The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(8):862.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Urpi-Sarda, Mireia, Rosa Casas, Emilio Sacanella, Dolores Corella, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Rafael Llorach, Gloria Garrabou, Francesc Cardellach, Aleix Sala-Vila, Emilio Ros, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, and Ramon Estruch. 2021. "The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease" Biomedicines 9, no. 8: 862.

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