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Article

The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Campus Torribera, University of Barcelona, 08921 Sant Coloma de Gramanet, Spain
2
CIBER Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
4
CIBER (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red) 06/03: Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER) de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), 28029 Madrid, Spain
7
Lipid Clinic, Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d’Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
8
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
9
Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition (Regicor Study Group), Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
10
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició Humana, 43201 Reus, Spain
11
Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Hospital Universitari San Joan de Reus, 43204 Reus, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Dong Kwon Yang and Giuseppina Basta
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080862
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Diseases)
The intervention with the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern has evidenced short-term anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about its long-term anti-inflammatory properties at molecular level. This study aims to investigate the 3-year effect of MD interventions compared to low-fat diet (LFD) on changes on inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in a free-living population with a high-risk of cardiovascular disease (CD). Participants (n = 285) in the PREDIMED trial were randomly assigned into three intervention groups: MD with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) or MD-Nuts, and a LFD. Fourteen plasma inflammatory biomarkers were determined by Luminex assays. An additional pilot study of gene expression (GE) was determined by RT-PCR in 35 participants. After 3 years, both MDs showed a significant reduction in the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, hs-CRP, MCP-1, MIP-1β, RANTES, and ENA78 (p < 0.05; all). The decreased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α after MD significantly differed from those in the LFD (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed at the gene level after MD interventions, however, the GE of CXCR2 and CXCR3 tended to increase in the control LFD group (p = 0.09). This study supports the implementation of MD as a healthy long-term dietary pattern in the prevention of CD in populations at high cardiovascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary pattern; nutrition; inflammation; gene expression; cardiovascular diseases dietary pattern; nutrition; inflammation; gene expression; cardiovascular diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Urpi-Sarda, M.; Casas, R.; Sacanella, E.; Corella, D.; Andrés-Lacueva, C.; Llorach, R.; Garrabou, G.; Cardellach, F.; Sala-Vila, A.; Ros, E.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Fitó, M.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Estruch, R. The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 862. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080862

AMA Style

Urpi-Sarda M, Casas R, Sacanella E, Corella D, Andrés-Lacueva C, Llorach R, Garrabou G, Cardellach F, Sala-Vila A, Ros E, Ruiz-Canela M, Fitó M, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R. The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(8):862. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080862

Chicago/Turabian Style

Urpi-Sarda, Mireia, Rosa Casas, Emilio Sacanella, Dolores Corella, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Rafael Llorach, Gloria Garrabou, Francesc Cardellach, Aleix Sala-Vila, Emilio Ros, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, and Ramon Estruch. 2021. "The 3-Year Effect of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Inflammatory Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease" Biomedicines 9, no. 8: 862. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080862

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