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Review

Sugar Fructose Triggers Gut Dysbiosis and Metabolic Inflammation with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

by 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 5,6,7, 5,6, 4,8,9, 4,10,11,* and 3,4,9,10,*
1
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
2
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Cardiovascular Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
4
Taipei Heart Institute, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
5
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
6
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
7
Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
8
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
9
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
10
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
11
Department of Medical Education and Research, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jun Lu
Biomedicines 2021, 9(7), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070728
Received: 23 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 22 June 2021 / Published: 25 June 2021
Fructose is a main dietary sugar involved in the excess sugar intake-mediated progression of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic intake of fructose has been the focus on the possible contributor to the metabolic diseases and cardiac inflammation. Recently, the small intestine was identified to be a major organ in fructose metabolism. The overconsumption of fructose induces dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which, in turn, increases intestinal permeability and activates host inflammation. Endotoxins and metabolites of the gut microbiota, such as lipopolysaccharide, trimethylamine N-oxide, and short-chain fatty acids, also influence the host inflammation and cardiac biofunctions. Thus, high-fructose diets cause heart–gut axis disorders that promote cardiac arrhythmia. Understanding how gut microbiota dysbiosis-mediated inflammation influences the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmia may provide mechanisms for cardiac arrhythmogenesis. This narrative review updates our current understanding of the roles of excessive intake of fructose on the heart-gut axis and proposes potential strategies for inflammation-associated cardiac vascular diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: arrhythmia; fructose; heart–gut axis; inflammation; microbiota arrhythmia; fructose; heart–gut axis; inflammation; microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, W.-L.; Li, S.-J.; Lee, T.-I.; Lee, T.-W.; Chung, C.-C.; Kao, Y.-H.; Chen, Y.-J. Sugar Fructose Triggers Gut Dysbiosis and Metabolic Inflammation with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070728

AMA Style

Cheng W-L, Li S-J, Lee T-I, Lee T-W, Chung C-C, Kao Y-H, Chen Y-J. Sugar Fructose Triggers Gut Dysbiosis and Metabolic Inflammation with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(7):728. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheng, Wan-Li, Shao-Jung Li, Ting-I Lee, Ting-Wei Lee, Cheng-Chih Chung, Yu-Hsun Kao, and Yi-Jen Chen. 2021. "Sugar Fructose Triggers Gut Dysbiosis and Metabolic Inflammation with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis" Biomedicines 9, no. 7: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070728

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