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Extracellular Vesicles in Innate Immune Cell Programming

Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andreas Spittler, Wolfgang Holnthoner and Viktoria Weber
Biomedicines 2021, 9(7), 713;
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammation)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are a heterogeneous group of bilipid-enclosed envelopes that carry proteins, metabolites, RNA, DNA and lipids from their parent cell of origin. They mediate cellular communication to other cells in local tissue microenvironments and across organ systems. EV size, number and their biologically active cargo are often altered in response to pathological processes, including infection, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and in response to metabolic perturbations such as obesity and diabetes, which also have a strong inflammatory component. Here, we discuss the broad repertoire of EV produced by neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, their precursor hematopoietic stem cells and discuss their effects on the innate immune system. We seek to understand the immunomodulatory properties of EV in cellular programming, which impacts innate immune cell differentiation and function. We further explore the possibilities of using EV as immune targeting vectors, for the modulation of the innate immune response, e.g., for tissue preservation during sterile injury such as myocardial infarction or to promote tissue resolution of inflammation and potentially tissue regeneration and repair. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; transcription; neutrophil; monocyte; hematopoietic stem cell exosomes; transcription; neutrophil; monocyte; hematopoietic stem cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akbar, N.; Paget, D.; Choudhury, R.P. Extracellular Vesicles in Innate Immune Cell Programming. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 713.

AMA Style

Akbar N, Paget D, Choudhury RP. Extracellular Vesicles in Innate Immune Cell Programming. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(7):713.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akbar, Naveed, Daan Paget, and Robin P. Choudhury. 2021. "Extracellular Vesicles in Innate Immune Cell Programming" Biomedicines 9, no. 7: 713.

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