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Article

Foveal Avascular Zone and Choroidal Thickness Are Decreased in Subjects with Hard Drusen and without High Genetic Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Oftalmológicas Ramón Castroviejo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), IdISSC, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
OFTARED—Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento de Inmunología, Oftalmología y ORL, Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain
4
Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, 28040 Madrid, Spain
5
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
6
Laboratory of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience, Center for Biomedical Technology, Technical University of Madrid, 28233 Madrid, Spain
7
Department of Experimental Psychology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain
8
Centre for Precision Health, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
9
Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida y de la Naturaleza, Universidad Antonio de Nebrija, 28015 Madrid, Spain
10
Departamento de Inmunología, Oftalmología y ORL, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Arnab Ghosh
Biomedicines 2021, 9(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060638
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases 2.0)
A family history (FH+) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and ɛ4 allele of the ApoE gene are the main genetic risk factors for developing AD, whereas ɛ4 allele plays a protective role in age-related macular degeneration. Ocular vascular changes have been reported in both pathologies. We analyzed the choroidal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) using OCT-angiography and compared the results with ApoE gene expression, AD FH+, and the presence or absence of hard drusen (HD) in 184 cognitively healthy subjects. Choroidal thickness was statistically significantly different in the (FH−, ɛ4−, HD+) group compared with (i) both the (FH−, ɛ4−, HD−) and the (FH+, ɛ4+, HD+) groups in the superior and inferior points at 1500 μm, and (ii) the (FH+, ɛ4−, HD+) group in the superior point at 1500 μm. There were statistically significant differences in the superficial FAZ between the (FH+, ɛ4−, HD+) group and (i) the (FH+, ɛ4−, HD−) group and (ii) the (FH+, ɛ4+, HD−) group. In conclusion, ocular vascular changes are not yet evident in participants with a genetic risk of developing AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s; family history; ApoE ɛ4; AMD; choroid; foveal avascular zone; hard drusen; retina; OCT; OCTA Alzheimer’s; family history; ApoE ɛ4; AMD; choroid; foveal avascular zone; hard drusen; retina; OCT; OCTA
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MDPI and ACS Style

López-Cuenca, I.; de Hoz, R.; Alcántara-Rey, C.; Salobrar-García, E.; Elvira-Hurtado, L.; Fernández-Albarral, J.A.; Barabash, A.; Ramírez-Toraño, F.; de Frutos-Lucas, J.; Salazar, J.J.; Ramírez, A.I.; Ramírez, J.M. Foveal Avascular Zone and Choroidal Thickness Are Decreased in Subjects with Hard Drusen and without High Genetic Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060638

AMA Style

López-Cuenca I, de Hoz R, Alcántara-Rey C, Salobrar-García E, Elvira-Hurtado L, Fernández-Albarral JA, Barabash A, Ramírez-Toraño F, de Frutos-Lucas J, Salazar JJ, Ramírez AI, Ramírez JM. Foveal Avascular Zone and Choroidal Thickness Are Decreased in Subjects with Hard Drusen and without High Genetic Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(6):638. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060638

Chicago/Turabian Style

López-Cuenca, Inés, Rosa de Hoz, Celia Alcántara-Rey, Elena Salobrar-García, Lorena Elvira-Hurtado, José A. Fernández-Albarral, Ana Barabash, Federico Ramírez-Toraño, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Juan J. Salazar, Ana I. Ramírez, and José M. Ramírez. 2021. "Foveal Avascular Zone and Choroidal Thickness Are Decreased in Subjects with Hard Drusen and without High Genetic Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease" Biomedicines 9, no. 6: 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060638

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