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Article

Determinants of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Based on Neuroimaging and Biochemical Parameters

1
Department of Radiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Medical Diagnostics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Electroradiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-126 Krakow, Poland
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
5
Department of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arnab Ghosh
Biomedicines 2021, 9(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040372
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases 2.0)
Despite extensive research, there is no convincing evidence of a reliable diagnostic biomarker for schizophrenia beyond clinical observation. Disorders of glutamatergic neurotransmission associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor insufficiency, neuroinflammation, and redox dysregulation are the principal common mechanism linking changes in the periphery with the brain, ultimately contributing to the emergence of negative symptoms of schizophrenia that underlie differential diagnosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of these systems via peripheral and cerebral biochemical indices in relation to the patient’s clinical condition. Using neuroimaging diagnostics, we were able to define endophenotypes of schizophrenia based on objective laboratory data that form the basis of a personalized approach to diagnosis and treatment. The two distinguished endophenotypes differed in terms of the quality of life, specific schizophrenia symptoms, and glutamatergic neurotransmission metabolites in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Our results, as well as further studies of the excitatory or inhibitory balance of microcircuits, relating the redox systems on the periphery with the distant regions of the brain might allow for predicting potential biomarkers of neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify an objective molecular biomarker of schizophrenia outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; endophenotypes; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; glutamatergic metabolites; anterior cingulate gyrus schizophrenia; endophenotypes; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; glutamatergic metabolites; anterior cingulate gyrus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bryll, A.; Krzyściak, W.; Karcz, P.; Pilecki, M.; Śmierciak, N.; Szwajca, M.; Skalniak, A.; Popiela, T.J. Determinants of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Based on Neuroimaging and Biochemical Parameters. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040372

AMA Style

Bryll A, Krzyściak W, Karcz P, Pilecki M, Śmierciak N, Szwajca M, Skalniak A, Popiela TJ. Determinants of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Based on Neuroimaging and Biochemical Parameters. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(4):372. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040372

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bryll, Amira, Wirginia Krzyściak, Paulina Karcz, Maciej Pilecki, Natalia Śmierciak, Marta Szwajca, Anna Skalniak, and Tadeusz J. Popiela 2021. "Determinants of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Based on Neuroimaging and Biochemical Parameters" Biomedicines 9, no. 4: 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040372

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