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Review

Catestatin as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Clinical Perspective

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Department of Pathophysiology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinic Magdalena, 49217 Krapinske Toplice, Croatia
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Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Referral Center for Health Care of the Elderly of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia, Department of Public Health Gerontology, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Health Studies, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Benedetta Porro
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121757 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 November 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Medicine: From Bench to Bedside)
Accounting for almost one-third of the global mortality, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) represent a major global health issue. Emerging data suggest that most of the well-established mechanistic explanations regarding the cardiovascular pathophysiology are flawed, and cannot fully explain the progression and long-term effects of these diseases. On the other hand, dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has emerged as an important player in the pathophysiology of CVDs. Even though upregulated SNS activity is an essential compensatory response to various stress conditions, in the long term, it becomes a major contributor to both cardiac dysfunction and vascular damage. Despite the fact that the importance of SNS hyperactivity in the setting of CVDs has been well-appreciated, its exact quantification and clinical application in either diagnostics or therapy of CVDs is still out of reach. Nevertheless, in recent years a number of novel laboratory biomarkers implicated in the pathophysiology of SNS activation have been explored. Specifically, in this review, we aimed to discuss the role of catestatin, a potent physiological inhibitor of catecholamine spillover that offers cardioprotective effects. Limited data indicate that catestatin could also be a reliable indirect marker of SNS activity and it is likely that high CST levels reflect advanced CV disease burden. Consequently, large-scale studies are required to validate these observations in the upcoming future. View Full-Text
Keywords: catestatin; chromogranin A; biomarker; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; sympathetic nervous system; catecholamine catestatin; chromogranin A; biomarker; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; sympathetic nervous system; catecholamine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bozic, J.; Kumric, M.; Ticinovic Kurir, T.; Urlic, H.; Martinovic, D.; Vilovic, M.; Tomasovic Mrcela, N.; Borovac, J.A. Catestatin as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Clinical Perspective. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1757. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121757

AMA Style

Bozic J, Kumric M, Ticinovic Kurir T, Urlic H, Martinovic D, Vilovic M, Tomasovic Mrcela N, Borovac JA. Catestatin as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Clinical Perspective. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(12):1757. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121757

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bozic, Josko, Marko Kumric, Tina Ticinovic Kurir, Hrvoje Urlic, Dinko Martinovic, Marino Vilovic, Nada Tomasovic Mrcela, and Josip A. Borovac 2021. "Catestatin as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Clinical Perspective" Biomedicines 9, no. 12: 1757. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121757

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