Next Article in Journal
RNA Sequencing in Comparison to Immunohistochemistry for Measuring Cancer Biomarkers in Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer Specimens
Previous Article in Journal
Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Trump Card for the Treatment of Diabetes?
Open AccessArticle

Increased ACh-Associated Immunoreactivity in Autonomic Centers in PTZ Kindling Model of Epilepsy

1
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat 66100, Turkey
2
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat 66100, Turkey
3
Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat 66100, Turkey
5
Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat 66100, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050113
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 3 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Neurologic Diseases)
Experimental and clinical studies of cardiac pathology associated with epilepsy have demonstrated an impact on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Molecular investigation of the neurotransmitters related receptor and ion channel directing ANS might help in understanding the associated mechanism. In this paper, we investigated the role of acetylcholine (ACh), which demonstrates both sympathetic and parasympathetic roles in targeted expression in terms of the relevant receptor and ion channel. Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a significant role in maintaining the resting membrane potential and controlling cell excitability and are prominently expressed in both the excitable and non-excitable tissues. The immunoreactivity of ACh-activated Kir3.1 channel and muscarinic ACh receptors (M2) in autonomic centers such as the brainstem, vagus nerve (VN) and atria of heart was confirmed by both histological staining and pathological tissue analysis. Significant upregulations of Kir3.1 and M2 receptors were observed in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled epileptic rats for all related tissues investigated, whereas no pathological difference was observed. These findings provide proof-of-concept that changes in ACh-associated immunoreactivity might be linked to the ANS dysfunctions associated with epilepsy. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetylcholine; Kir channels; M2 receptors; epilepsy acetylcholine; Kir channels; M2 receptors; epilepsy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Akyüz, E.; Doğanyiğit, Z.; Paudel, Y.N.; Kaymak, E.; Yilmaz, S.; Uner, A.; Shaikh, M.F. Increased ACh-Associated Immunoreactivity in Autonomic Centers in PTZ Kindling Model of Epilepsy. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 113.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop