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Open AccessArticle

Effects of an 8-Week Protein Supplementation Regimen with Hyperimmunized Cow Milk on Exercise-Induced Organ Damage and Inflammation in Male Runners: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Cross-Over Study

1
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
2
Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
3
Research Institute for Life Support Innovation, Waseda University, Shinjuku 162-0041, Japan
4
Ortho Corporation, Shibuya 150-0002, Japan
5
Division of Host Defense, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8030051
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 28 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
Prolonged strenuous exercise may induce inflammation, cause changes in gastrointestinal permeability, and lead to other unfavorable biological changes and diseases. Nutritional approaches have been used to prevent exercise-induced inflammatory responses and gastrointestinal disorders. Hyperimmunized milk, obtained by immunizing cows against specific antigens, promotes the development of immunity against pathogens, promotes anti-inflammatory effects, and protects intestinal function. Immune protein (IMP) is a concentrated product of hyperimmunized milk and is a more promising means of supplementation to protect against acute infections and inflammation. To determine whether IMP has protective properties against exercise-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction and inflammation, we examined biochemical markers, intestinal damage markers, and pro-/anti-inflammatory profiles of young male runners using a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over design. Urine samples were collected and used for measurements of creatinine, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, osmotic pressure, and specific gravity. Titin was measured as a muscle damage marker. Further, urine concentrations of complement 5a, calprotectin, fractalkine, myeloperoxidase, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We demonstrated that urine osmotic pressure, urine specific gravity, I-FABP, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α were reduced by 8 weeks of IMP supplementation, indicating that IMP may have potential in preventing strenuous exercise-induced renal dysfunction, increased intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Thus, IMP supplementation may be a feasible nutritional approach for the prevention of unfavorable exercise-induced symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperimmunized milk; exercise; inflammation; intestinal permeability; cytokine hyperimmunized milk; exercise; inflammation; intestinal permeability; cytokine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, S.; Tominaga, T.; Kanda, K.; Sugama, K.; Omae, C.; Hashimoto, S.; Aoyama, K.; Yoshikai, Y.; Suzuki, K. Effects of an 8-Week Protein Supplementation Regimen with Hyperimmunized Cow Milk on Exercise-Induced Organ Damage and Inflammation in Male Runners: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Cross-Over Study. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8030051

AMA Style

Ma S, Tominaga T, Kanda K, Sugama K, Omae C, Hashimoto S, Aoyama K, Yoshikai Y, Suzuki K. Effects of an 8-Week Protein Supplementation Regimen with Hyperimmunized Cow Milk on Exercise-Induced Organ Damage and Inflammation in Male Runners: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Cross-Over Study. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(3):51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8030051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Sihui; Tominaga, Takaki; Kanda, Kazue; Sugama, Kaoru; Omae, Chiaki; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Suzuki, Katsuhiko. 2020. "Effects of an 8-Week Protein Supplementation Regimen with Hyperimmunized Cow Milk on Exercise-Induced Organ Damage and Inflammation in Male Runners: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Cross-Over Study" Biomedicines 8, no. 3: 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8030051

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