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Review

NURR1 Alterations in Perinatal Stress: A First Step towards Late-Onset Diseases? A Narrative Review

1
Unit of Molecular Biology and Nutrigenomics, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2
School of Advanced Studies, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
3
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, MSD2080 Msida, Malta
4
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, 24 D’Olier Street, Dublin 2, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120584
Received: 5 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Perinatal life represents a delicate phase of development where stimuli of all sorts, coming to or from the mother, can influence the programming of the future baby’s health. These stimuli may have consequences that persist throughout adulthood. Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1), a transcription factor with a critical role in the development of the dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, mediates the response to stressful environmental stimuli in the perinatal period. During pregnancy, low-grade inflammation triggered by maternal obesity, hyperinsulinemia or vaginal infections alters NURR1 expression in human gestational tissues. A similar scenario is triggered by exposure to neurotoxic compounds, which are associated with NURR1 epigenetic deregulation in the offspring, with potential intergenerational effects. Since these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of developing late-onset diseases in children, NURR1, alone, or in combination with other molecular markers, has been proposed as a new prognostic tool and a potential therapeutic target for several pathological conditions. This narrative review describes perinatal stress associated with NURR1 gene deregulation, which is proposed here as a mediator of late-onset consequences of early life events. View Full-Text
Keywords: perinatal stress; NURR1; inflammation; late-onset diseases; early life perinatal stress; NURR1; inflammation; late-onset diseases; early life
MDPI and ACS Style

Bordoni, L.; Petracci, I.; Calleja-Agius, J.; Lalor, J.G.; Gabbianelli, R. NURR1 Alterations in Perinatal Stress: A First Step towards Late-Onset Diseases? A Narrative Review. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 584. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120584

AMA Style

Bordoni L, Petracci I, Calleja-Agius J, Lalor JG, Gabbianelli R. NURR1 Alterations in Perinatal Stress: A First Step towards Late-Onset Diseases? A Narrative Review. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(12):584. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120584

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bordoni, Laura, Irene Petracci, Jean Calleja-Agius, Joan G. Lalor, and Rosita Gabbianelli. 2020. "NURR1 Alterations in Perinatal Stress: A First Step towards Late-Onset Diseases? A Narrative Review" Biomedicines 8, no. 12: 584. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120584

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