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Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment

1
Department of Health Sciences, Institute of Research for Food Safety & Health (IRC-FSH), University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Campus Universitario di Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Nutramed S.c.a.r.l, Complesso Ninì Barbieri, Roccelletta di Borgia, 88021 Catanzaro, Italy
3
IRCCS San Raffaele, Via di Valcannuta 247, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(12), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120553
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria and Brain Disease)
Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system which are generated by progenitor oligodendrocytes as a result of maturation processes. The main function of mature oligodendrocytes is to produce myelin, a lipid-rich multi-lamellar membrane that wraps tightly around neuronal axons, insulating them and facilitating nerve conduction through saltatory propagation. The myelination process requires the consumption a large amount of energy and a high metabolic turnover. Mitochondria are essential organelles which regulate many cellular functions, including energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Any mitochondrial dysfunction impacts cellular metabolism and negatively affects the health of the organism. If the functioning of the mitochondria is unbalanced, the myelination process is impaired. When myelination has finished, oligodendrocyte will have synthesized about 40% of the total lipids present in the brain. Since lipid synthesis occurs in the cellular endoplasmic reticulum, the dysfunction of this organelle can lead to partial or deficient myelination, triggering numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the induced malfunction of oligodendrocytes by harmful exogenous stimuli has been outlined. In particular, the effects of alcohol consumption and heavy metal intake are discussed. Furthermore, the response of the oligodendrocyte to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress and to the altered regulation of the functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum will be explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: oligodendrocytes; myelination; oxygen reactive species; endoplasmic reticulum; unfolded protein response; heavy metals; alcohol oligodendrocytes; myelination; oxygen reactive species; endoplasmic reticulum; unfolded protein response; heavy metals; alcohol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maiuolo, J.; Gliozzi, M.; Musolino, V.; Carresi, C.; Nucera, S.; Scicchitano, M.; Scarano, F.; Bosco, F.; Oppedisano, F.; Macrì, R.; Mollace, V. Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 553. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120553

AMA Style

Maiuolo J, Gliozzi M, Musolino V, Carresi C, Nucera S, Scicchitano M, Scarano F, Bosco F, Oppedisano F, Macrì R, Mollace V. Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(12):553. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120553

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maiuolo, Jessica, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Saverio Nucera, Miriam Scicchitano, Federica Scarano, Francesca Bosco, Francesca Oppedisano, Roberta Macrì, and Vincenzo Mollace. 2020. "Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment" Biomedicines 8, no. 12: 553. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120553

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