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Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 20;

Immune Landscape of Breast Cancers

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 8NS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissecting the Immunological Landscape of Human Malignancies)
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Breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both at a molecular and a histological level. Five intrinsic subtypes were initially identified—Luminal-A, Luminal-B, HER2+, Triple negative/basal like (TNBC) and normal like—subsequently expanded to seven (Basal-like-1 and 2, mesenchymal, mesenchymal stem-like, luminal androgen receptor, immuno-modulatory and unstable). Although genetic and epigenetic changes are key pathogenic events, the immune system plays a substantial role in promoting progression and metastasis. This review will discuss the extent to which immune cells can be detected within the tumor microenvironment, as well as their prognostic role and relationship with the microbiome, with an emphasis on TNBC. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; TNBC; immune infiltrate; microenvironment; prognosis; microbiome; chemotherapy breast cancer; TNBC; immune infiltrate; microenvironment; prognosis; microbiome; chemotherapy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nagarajan, D.; McArdle, S.E.B. Immune Landscape of Breast Cancers. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 20.

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