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Review

The Future of Precision Medicine in the Cure of Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
3
Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, (GMC-Srinagar), Karan Nagar, Srinagar 190010, India
4
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Physiology, Bryd Alzheimer’s Research Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
6
Department of Pharmacy, Abu Areish General Hospital, Abu Areish 45911, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Emergency and Accident, Abu Areish General Hospital, Abu Areish 45911, Saudi Arabia
8
Division of Veterinary Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (SKUAST-K), Srinagar 190006, India
9
Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, Hebersham, NSW 2770, Australia
10
AFNP Med, Haidingergasse 29, 1030 Vienna, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2023, 11(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020335
Received: 25 December 2022 / Revised: 18 January 2023 / Accepted: 18 January 2023 / Published: 25 January 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Diagnostic and Treatment Methods in Alzheimer's Disease)

Abstract

This decade has seen the beginning of ground-breaking conceptual shifts in the research of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which acknowledges risk elements and the evolving wide spectrum of complicated underlying pathophysiology among the range of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Significant improvements in diagnosis, treatments, and mitigation of AD are likely to result from the development and application of a comprehensive approach to precision medicine (PM), as is the case with several other diseases. This strategy will probably be based on the achievements made in more sophisticated research areas, including cancer. PM will require the direct integration of neurology, neuroscience, and psychiatry into a paradigm of the healthcare field that turns away from the isolated method. PM is biomarker-guided treatment at a systems level that incorporates findings of the thorough pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders as well as methodological developments. Comprehensive examination and categorization of interrelated and convergent disease processes, an explanation of the genomic and epigenetic drivers, a description of the spatial and temporal paths of natural history, biological markers, and risk markers, as well as aspects about the regulation, and the ethical, governmental, and sociocultural repercussions of findings at a subclinical level all require clarification and realistic execution. Advances toward a comprehensive systems-based approach to PM may finally usher in a new era of scientific and technical achievement that will help to end the complications of AD.
Keywords: precision medicine; Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; neuroimaging; artificial intelligence precision medicine; Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; neuroimaging; artificial intelligence

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MDPI and ACS Style

Arafah, A.; Khatoon, S.; Rasool, I.; Khan, A.; Rather, M.A.; Abujabal, K.A.; Faqih, Y.A.H.; Rashid, H.; Rashid, S.M.; Bilal Ahmad, S.; Alexiou, A.; U. Rehman, M. The Future of Precision Medicine in the Cure of Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomedicines 2023, 11, 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020335

AMA Style

Arafah A, Khatoon S, Rasool I, Khan A, Rather MA, Abujabal KA, Faqih YAH, Rashid H, Rashid SM, Bilal Ahmad S, Alexiou A, U. Rehman M. The Future of Precision Medicine in the Cure of Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomedicines. 2023; 11(2):335. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arafah, Azher, Saima Khatoon, Iyman Rasool, Andleeb Khan, Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Khaled Abdullah Abujabal, Yazid Abdullilah Hassan Faqih, Hina Rashid, Shahzada Mudasir Rashid, Sheikh Bilal Ahmad, Athanasios Alexiou, and Muneeb U. Rehman. 2023. "The Future of Precision Medicine in the Cure of Alzheimer’s Disease" Biomedicines 11, no. 2: 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020335

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