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Article

Cow Milk Extracellular Vesicle Effects on an In Vitro Model of Intestinal Inflammation

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Sports Horse Research Center (CRCS), University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
3
Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
4
National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Piazza Borgo Pila 39-24, 16129 Genova, Italy
5
Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, CNR, 00133 Rome, Italy
6
Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies, IBIOM, National Research Council, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy
7
Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
8
Department of Animal Health, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna, 07100 Sassari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Pallio
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030570
Received: 14 January 2022 / Revised: 19 February 2022 / Accepted: 27 February 2022 / Published: 28 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2.0)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer nano-dimensional spherical structures and act mainly as signaling mediators between cells, in particular modulating immunity and inflammation. Milk-derived EVs (mEVs) can have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, and milk is one of the most promising food sources of EVs. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate bovine mEVs anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects on an in vitro co-culture (Caco-2 and THP-1) model of intestinal inflammation through gene expression evaluation with RT-qPCR and cytokine release through ELISA. After establishing a pro-inflammatory environment due to IFN-γ and LPS stimuli, CXCL8, IL1B, TNFA, IL12A, IL23A, TGFB1, NOS2, and MMP9 were significantly up-regulated in inflamed Caco-2 compared to the basal co-culture. Moreover, IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α release was increased in supernatants of THP-1. The mEV administration partially restored initial conditions with an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Indeed, a decrease in gene expression and protein production of most of the tested cytokines was detected, together with a significant gene expression decrease in MMP9 and the up-regulation of MUC2 and TJP1. These results showed a fundamental capability of mEVs to modulate inflammation and their potential beneficial effect on the intestinal mucosa. View Full-Text
Keywords: EVs; bovine milk; IBD; RT-qPCR; Caco-2; THP-1; co-cultured; model of intestinal inflammation; anti-inflammatory; immunomodulating EVs; bovine milk; IBD; RT-qPCR; Caco-2; THP-1; co-cultured; model of intestinal inflammation; anti-inflammatory; immunomodulating
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mecocci, S.; Ottaviani, A.; Razzuoli, E.; Fiorani, P.; Pietrucci, D.; De Ciucis, C.G.; Dei Giudici, S.; Franzoni, G.; Chillemi, G.; Cappelli, K. Cow Milk Extracellular Vesicle Effects on an In Vitro Model of Intestinal Inflammation. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 570. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030570

AMA Style

Mecocci S, Ottaviani A, Razzuoli E, Fiorani P, Pietrucci D, De Ciucis CG, Dei Giudici S, Franzoni G, Chillemi G, Cappelli K. Cow Milk Extracellular Vesicle Effects on an In Vitro Model of Intestinal Inflammation. Biomedicines. 2022; 10(3):570. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030570

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mecocci, Samanta, Alessio Ottaviani, Elisabetta Razzuoli, Paola Fiorani, Daniele Pietrucci, Chiara G. De Ciucis, Silvia Dei Giudici, Giulia Franzoni, Giovanni Chillemi, and Katia Cappelli. 2022. "Cow Milk Extracellular Vesicle Effects on an In Vitro Model of Intestinal Inflammation" Biomedicines 10, no. 3: 570. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030570

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