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Does the Type of Exposure to Workplace Violence Matter to Nurses’ Mental Health?
Review

A Realist Review of Violence Prevention Education in Healthcare

1
Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
3
Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada
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School of Population & Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tao-Hsin Tung
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030339
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 7 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence Prevention and Management in the Healthcare Sector)
Violence from patients and visitors towards healthcare workers is an international concern affecting the safety and health of workers, quality of care, and healthcare system sustainability. Although the predominant intervention has been violence prevention (VP) education for healthcare workers, evaluating its effectiveness is challenging due to underreporting of violence and the inherent complexity of both violence and the health care environment. This review utilized a theory-driven, realist approach to synthesize and analyze a wide range of academic and grey literature to identify explanations of how and why VP education makes a difference in preventing violence and associated physical and psychological injury to workers. The review confirmed the importance of positioning VP education as part of a VP strategy, and consideration of the contexts that influence successful application of VP knowledge and skills. Synthesis and analysis of patterns of evidence across 64 documents resulted in 11 realist explanations of VP education effectiveness. Examples include education specific to clinical settings, unit-level modeling and mentoring support, and support of peers and supervisors during violent incidents. This review informs practical program and policy decisions to enhance VP education effectiveness in healthcare settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthcare; patient violence; violence prevention education effectiveness; realist review healthcare; patient violence; violence prevention education effectiveness; realist review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Provost, S.; MacPhee, M.; Daniels, M.A.; Naimi, M.; McLeod, C. A Realist Review of Violence Prevention Education in Healthcare. Healthcare 2021, 9, 339. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030339

AMA Style

Provost S, MacPhee M, Daniels MA, Naimi M, McLeod C. A Realist Review of Violence Prevention Education in Healthcare. Healthcare. 2021; 9(3):339. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030339

Chicago/Turabian Style

Provost, Sharon, Maura MacPhee, Michael A. Daniels, Michelle Naimi, and Chris McLeod. 2021. "A Realist Review of Violence Prevention Education in Healthcare" Healthcare 9, no. 3: 339. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030339

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