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Review

Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes of Community Pharmacy-Based Healthcare Interventions Regarding Medication Use in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
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Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
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Clinical Pharmacy and Practice Department, College of Pharmacy, QU Health Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Bayan Lepas Health Clinic, Bayan Lepas 11900, Malaysia
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Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah 51452, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Georges Adunlin
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111577
Received: 18 September 2021 / Revised: 14 November 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 18 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Practice and Administration)
This review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the clinical and humanistic outcomes of community pharmacy-based interventions on medication-related problems of older adults at the primary care level. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the impact of various community pharmacy-based interventions from five electronic databases (namely, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL, APA PSYInfo, and Scopus) from January 2010 to December 2020. Consequently, we assessed these interventions’ clinical and humanistic outcomes on older adults and compared them with non-intervention. We included 13 RCTs in the current review and completed a meta-analysis with six of them. The included studies had a total of 6173 older adults. Quantitative analysis showed that patient education was significantly associated with an increase in the discontinuation of sedative–hypnotics use (risk ratio 1.28; 95% CI (1.20, 1.36) I2 = 0%, p < 0.00001). Moreover, the qualitative analysis showed that medication reviews and education with follow-ups could improve various clinical outcomes, including reducing adverse drug events, reducing uncontrolled health outcomes, and improving appropriate medication use among the elderly population. However, medication review could not significantly reduce the number of older adults who fall (risk ratio 1.25; 95% CI (0.78, 1.99) I2 = 0%, p = 0.36) and require hospitalization (risk ratio 0.72; 95% CI (0.47, 1.12) I2 = 45%, p = 0.15). This study showed that community pharmacy-based interventions could help discontinue inappropriate prescription medications among older adults and could improve several clinical and humanistic outcomes. However, more effective community pharmacy-based interventions should be implemented, and more research is needed to provide further evidence for clinical and humanistic outcomes of such interventions on older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: community pharmacy; intervention; older adults; outcomes; systematic review community pharmacy; intervention; older adults; outcomes; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Christopher, C.M.; KC, B.; Blebil, A.; Alex, D.; Ibrahim, M.I.M.; Ismail, N.; Alrasheedy, A.A. Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes of Community Pharmacy-Based Healthcare Interventions Regarding Medication Use in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111577

AMA Style

Christopher CM, KC B, Blebil A, Alex D, Ibrahim MIM, Ismail N, Alrasheedy AA. Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes of Community Pharmacy-Based Healthcare Interventions Regarding Medication Use in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare. 2021; 9(11):1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111577

Chicago/Turabian Style

Christopher, Christina Malini, Bhuvan KC, Ali Blebil, Deepa Alex, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Norhasimah Ismail, and Alian A. Alrasheedy. 2021. "Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes of Community Pharmacy-Based Healthcare Interventions Regarding Medication Use in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Healthcare 9, no. 11: 1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111577

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