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Review

What Will Be the Impact of the COVID-19 Quarantine on Psychological Distress? Considerations Based on a Systematic Review of Pandemic Outbreaks

1
Department of Psychology, University “Vita-Salute San Raffaele”, Via Stamira d’Ancona, 20, 20127 Milan, Italy
2
Unit of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, San Raffaele-Turro Hospital Ville Turro Site, Via Stamira d’Ancona, 20, 20127 Milan, Italy
3
Asst SS.Paolo e Carlo, S.Paolo Hospital, 20142 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Health Science, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
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Aldo Ravelli Center, Department of Health Science, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
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Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Polytechnic University of Milan, 20122 Milano, Italy
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European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan, Italy
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Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010101
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
Background: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and related syndrome (COVID-19) has led to worldwide measures with severe consequences for millions of people. In the light of the psychopathological consequences of restrictive measures detected during previous outbreaks, a systematic review was carried out to provide an evidence-based assessment of possible effects of the current COVID-19 quarantine on mental health. Methods: This review included studies that assessed mental health indexes (e.g., overall psychological distress, depressive and PTSD symptoms) during and after quarantine periods adopted to management different outbreaks (e.g., COVID-19, SARS, MERS). Results: Twenty-one independent studies were included for a total of 82,312 subjects. At least 20% of people exposed to restrictive measures for the management of pandemic infections reported clinically significant levels of psychological distress, especially PTSD (21%) and depressive (22.69%) symptoms. Overall, original studies highlighted relevant methodological limitations. Conclusions: Nowadays, almost one out of every five people is at risk of development of clinically significant psychological distress. Further research on mental health after the current COVID-19 quarantine measures is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; psychological distress; anxiety; depression; PTSD COVID-19; psychological distress; anxiety; depression; PTSD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cavicchioli, M.; Ferrucci, R.; Guidetti, M.; Canevini, M.P.; Pravettoni, G.; Galli, F. What Will Be the Impact of the COVID-19 Quarantine on Psychological Distress? Considerations Based on a Systematic Review of Pandemic Outbreaks. Healthcare 2021, 9, 101. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010101

AMA Style

Cavicchioli M, Ferrucci R, Guidetti M, Canevini MP, Pravettoni G, Galli F. What Will Be the Impact of the COVID-19 Quarantine on Psychological Distress? Considerations Based on a Systematic Review of Pandemic Outbreaks. Healthcare. 2021; 9(1):101. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010101

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cavicchioli, Marco, Roberta Ferrucci, Matteo Guidetti, Maria P. Canevini, Gabriella Pravettoni, and Federica Galli. 2021. "What Will Be the Impact of the COVID-19 Quarantine on Psychological Distress? Considerations Based on a Systematic Review of Pandemic Outbreaks" Healthcare 9, no. 1: 101. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010101

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