Next Article in Journal
Experiences of Older Spousal Caregivers for Caring a Person with a Memory Disorder
Previous Article in Journal
Influencing Factors and Countermeasures of the Health of Residents in the City Clusters along the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River
Open AccessArticle

Eye Examination Recency among African American Older Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions

1
Department of Family Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science (CDU), Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
2
Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
3
School of Nursing, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8020094
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 12 April 2020
Background: Pervasive racial and economic inequalities have a disproportionate impact on health care utilization among African Americans. One area where we see such disparities is in the recency of eye examinations among the economically disadvantaged. However, our current understanding of the barriers and facilitators of eye examinations in underserved African-American older adults is limited. Aims: Building on Andersen’s model of health service use and using an exploratory approach; we tested various demographic, social, and health factors that were associated with eye examination among underserved middle-aged and older adults in South Los Angeles. We examined predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and need-for-care characteristics. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, we conducted this survey on a convenience sample of (n = 740) non-institutionalized African-American older adults who were 55+ years old and residing in South Los Angeles, CA, USA. Data were collected on demographic factors, continuity of care, access to care, self-rated health, chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms. The outcome was recency of eye examination. Multivariate regression was used for data analysis. Results: 59% of the participants had received at least one eye examination during the last 12 months. A total of 17% had an eye examination within the last two years. Notably, 26% of diabetic participants did not have an eye examination within the last two years. One out of four participants indicated that, within the last two years, no provider ever recommended that they receive an eye examination. Age, education, continuity of medical care, accessibility of medical care, satisfaction with medical care, providers’ recommendation for eye examination, self-rated health, and a diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were predictors of eye examination recency. Overall, our analysis indicates that these enabling factors accounted for most of the variance in the recency of eye examinations. Conclusion: A large proportion of underserved African-American middle-aged and older adults in South Los Angeles do not comply with the recommended annual eye examination. This is, in part, because about one-third of them have not received an eye exam recommendation from their health care providers. However, a wide range of factors such as age, education, continuity of care, satisfaction with access, self-rated health, and a diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, also influence whether or not African-American middle-aged and older adults receive an eye examination. Programs should address a wide range of multi-level factors to tackle this health inequality. View Full-Text
Keywords: health care use; health services; African-Americans; ethnic groups; health disparities; eye examination; underserved populations health care use; health services; African-Americans; ethnic groups; health disparities; eye examination; underserved populations
MDPI and ACS Style

Bazargan, M.; Ekwegh, T.; Cobb, S.; Adinkrah, E.; Assari, S. Eye Examination Recency among African American Older Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions. Healthcare 2020, 8, 94.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop