The Influence of Workplace Incivility on Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion in Recreational Sport/Fitness Clubs: A Cross-Level Analysis of the Links between Psychological Capital and Perceived Service Climate
Department of Physical Education, Health & Recreation, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 62103, Taiwan
Department of Leisure Service Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung 41349, Taiwan
Physical Education and Arts School, Chengyi University College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, China
Department of Leisure Management, Taiwan Shoufu University, Tainan 72153, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7040159
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
The aim of this study was to explore the influence of workplace incivility on the emotional exhaustion of recreational sport/fitness club providers through a cross-level analysis. A total of 200 recreational sport/fitness club providers from Taiwan were selected for the repeated collection of measures and a 10-day diary method was used. The effect of workplace incivility on recreational sport/fitness club employees’ emotional exhaustion on a daily basis was analyzed at the intra-personal level, and the relationship between psychological capital and perceived service climate was studied at the inter-personal level. Five hypotheses were developed and tested using hierarchical linear modeling. The results found that employees’ emotional exhaustion and burnout highly correlated with workplace incivility and service climate. Based on the results, recommendations for employees and sport/fitness centers are proposed. Furthermore, research limitations and future directions are discussed.