Digital Analysis of Sit-to-Stand in Masters Athletes, Healthy Old People, and Young Adults Using a Depth Sensor
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Data Collection
2.1.2. Data Acquisition
2.1.3. Data Labelling
- Peak of each sit-to-stand phase: The coder was asked to locate the minima and maxima of each peak of the standing and sitting repetition.
- Start and end of each sit-to-stand phase: The coder was asked to identify where they believe the start of the sit-to-stand and end (stand-to-sit) were located.
- Outlier frames: The K3Da dataset labelled each frame as a ‘good’ frame or ‘outlier’, which was reassessed by coders for agreement.
2.2. Assessment Framework
2.2.1. Phase 1: Outlier Detection
2.2.2. Phase 2: Feature Generation
2.2.3. Phase 3: Transition Detection
- Peak-standing and sitting: The y-axis of the CoM (com) feature was low-pass filtered using a Butterworth filter with a normalised cut-off frequency of six frames. Peak standing and sitting points were detected using the inverse maxima, to identify the local minima and maxima of the vector.
- Start and end of each sit-to-stand phase: The start of the standing and sitting phase commenced when the following conditions were met; start of the sit-to-stand motion was defined as the first vertical increase above a threshold value, defined as the vertical mean (plus 15%), and the final stand-to-sit decreasing below the mean (minus 15%).
- Limitation: The maximum number of completed transitions was set at five, the required number for the sit-to-stand motion, meaning that if a participant performed more than five, they were not used in computation.
2.3. Statistical Analyses
- Stand Time (s): The time taken between each peak-sitting to peak-standing.
- Sit Time (s): The time taken between each peak-standing to peak-sitting.
- CoM Stand ML (cm) and AP (cm): The directional movement observed during each peak-sitting to peak-standing.
- CoM Sit ML (cm) and AP (cm): The directional movement observed during each peak-standing to peak-sitting.
- Stand UfV (m/s): The velocity observed during each peak-sitting to peak-standing.
- Sit UfV (m/s): The velocity observed during each peak-standing to peak-sitting.
- Stand UBFA (deg): The angle of the torso observed during each peak-sitting to peak-standing.
- Sit UBFA (deg): The angle of the torso observed during each peak-standing to peak-sitting.
- Total Time (s): The total time is computed from the first peak-sitting to the last peak-sitting (5 repetitions).
3.1. Outlier Detection
3.2. Transition Detection
3.3. Identifying Subtle Differences
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Parameter (SD)||Young Adult||Healthy Old||Masters Athletes||p-Value|
|Age, years||26.40 (±3.16)||74.90 (±4.11)||66.93 (±5.03) a,b||0.00|
|Height, cm||176.47 (±8.59)||170.30 (±5.97) c||166.01 (±10.07)||0.04|
|Weight, kg||77.93 (±18.11)||80.25 (±15.32)||61.90 (±9.39)||0.594|
|Body mass index||23.01 (±5.70) b,c||22.65 (±5.38)||19.14 (±2.11)||0.04|
|Parameter||Average Detection Rate (SD)|
|Start of sit-to-stand||4.76 (±0.48)|
|Peak standing||4.93 (±0.35)|
|End of stand-to-sit||4.34 (±0.63)|
|Parameter||Young Adults||Healthy Old||Masters Athletes||p-Value|
|Stand Time (s)||1.02 (±0.18)||2.02 (±0.21)||1.51 (±0.19) a||0.02|
|CoM Stand ML (cm)||0.24 (0.05)||0.03 (0.26)||0.17 (0.06)||0.56|
|CoM Stand AP (cm)||0.21 (±0.01) b||0.01 (±0.19)||0.04 (±0.14)||0.04|
|Stand UBFA (deg)||12 (±2.86)||18 (±4.09)||14 (±3.58)||0.62|
|Stand UfV (m/s)||0.82 (±0.19)||0.71 (±0.38)||0.73 (±0.19)||0.16|
|Sit Time (s)||0.92 (±0.23)||1.47 (±0.73)||0.98 (±0.35)||0.23|
|CoM Sit ML (cm)||0.22 (0.06)||0.04 (0.28) a,c||0.22 (0.09)||0.00|
|CoM Sit AP (cm)||0.22 (±0.03)||0.03 (±0.17)||0.05 (±0.16)||0.53|
|Sit UBFA (deg)||17 (±3.19)||16 (±3.71) a||10 (±2.38) a||0.05|
|Sit UfV (m/s)||0.98 (±0.19)||0.78 (±0.58)||0.83 (±0.21) a||0.04|
|Total time (s)||7.98 (±2.09)||12.18 (±3.76)||9.28 (±0.94)||0.24|
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Leightley, D.; Yap, M.H. Digital Analysis of Sit-to-Stand in Masters Athletes, Healthy Old People, and Young Adults Using a Depth Sensor. Healthcare 2018, 6, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6010021
Leightley D, Yap MH. Digital Analysis of Sit-to-Stand in Masters Athletes, Healthy Old People, and Young Adults Using a Depth Sensor. Healthcare. 2018; 6(1):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6010021Chicago/Turabian Style
Leightley, Daniel, and Moi Hoon Yap. 2018. "Digital Analysis of Sit-to-Stand in Masters Athletes, Healthy Old People, and Young Adults Using a Depth Sensor" Healthcare 6, no. 1: 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6010021