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Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 68;

Three Types of Intimate Relationships among Individuals with Chronic Pain and a History of Trauma Exposure

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA
Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University School of Arts and Sciences, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Individuals with chronic pain often have psychiatric disorders, such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can affect their intimate relationship satisfaction and stability. Little is known about the nature of support stemming from chronic pain patients’ intimate relationships, and therefore, this study sought to: (1) use cluster modeling to construct specific intimate relationship groups based on types of support patients receive, and (2) determine if there is a relationship between support type and PTSD, chronic pain, anxiety, and depression. Ward’s method of cluster analysis in Stata was used to create groups based on the level of informational, affirmation, confident, emotional, and fun support received from chronic pain patients’ most intimate relationship. Three types of support were identified: high (type 1, n = 17), high emotional/low instrumental (type 2, n = 9), and unstable (type 3, n = 15). Types 1 and 3 included more family members (Type 1: 100%, Type 2: 93%), than type 2 (77%). Type 2 patients experienced more trauma (Mean = 9.4 ± 1.7 vs. 7.5 ± 0.88 for types 1 and 3) and were significantly more likely to have PTSD (X2 = 7.91, p < 0.05. Patients with low familial support may also benefit from PTSD screening and referral but further study is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic pain; social support; PTSD; trauma chronic pain; social support; PTSD; trauma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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van den Berk-Clark, C.; Weaver, T.L.; Schneider, F.D. Three Types of Intimate Relationships among Individuals with Chronic Pain and a History of Trauma Exposure. Healthcare 2017, 5, 68.

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