Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Becoming Food Aware in Hospital: A Narrative Review to Advance the Culture of Nutrition Care in Hospitals
Previous Article in Journal
Relationship between High School Mathematics Grade and Number of Attempts Required to Pass the Medication Calculation Test in Nurse Education: An Explorative Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Vitamin D in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Healthcare 2015, 3(2), 364-392;

Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
USDA-ARS, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 430 West Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Samir Samman and Ian Darnton-Hill
Received: 16 March 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Close Relationship: Health and Nutrition)
Full-Text   |   PDF [237 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]   |  


This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; satiety; whole grains; VAS appetite assessment; short chain fatty acids; bile acids; obesity gut microbiota; satiety; whole grains; VAS appetite assessment; short chain fatty acids; bile acids; obesity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cooper, D.N.; Martin, R.J.; Keim, N.L. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety? Healthcare 2015, 3, 364-392.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Healthcare EISSN 2227-9032 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top