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Review

Effects of Lighting Interventions to Improve Sleepiness in Night-Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
College of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
2
Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital Zuoying Branch, Kaohsiung City 81342, Taiwan
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Nursing Department, Chi Mei Hospital, Tainan City 71004, Taiwan
4
Nursing Department, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
5
Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung City 80424, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Georgia Trakada
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081390
Received: 17 June 2022 / Revised: 19 July 2022 / Accepted: 20 July 2022 / Published: 26 July 2022
Shift work disrupts an otherwise normal circadian rhythm, which may result in sleepiness among night-shift workers. Artificial light has been shown to alter the light–dark cycle of shift workers and reset or phase shift the biological clock, improving nighttime alertness in workers. However, the effect of light therapy on improving sleepiness in nighttime workers has not been effectively confirmed in nursing clinical studies, and it is worth using relevant studies to provide the best evidence in any clinical setting. Systematic review and meta-analysis were used. The study was performed using PRISMA. Academic Search Complete, Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were searched, from the inception of each database to 27 December 2021. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of each study. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesized using a random-effects model to assess the efficacy of lighting intervention to improve sleepiness in night-shift workers. Sensitivity analysis followed by subgroup analysis was employed to examine heterogeneity. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4.1 software. A total of 14 studies from 7 countries were included. The overall result shows that lighting interventions significantly improved sleepiness. Further, the blue-enriched white light with a color temperature greater than 5000 Kelvin was effective in improving sleepiness of night-shift workers. This study unveils the emergent knowledge that light interventions with blue-enriched white were effective in improving sleepiness for night-shift workers, including nurses. This finding can be applied to ensure patient safety, reduce accidents, and improve work efficiency and job satisfaction. Nurses constitute the largest health professional workforce. We suggest that hospitals can insert blue-enriched white light equipment for night-shift healthcare providers. Several evidence-based suggestions are made for further consideration. View Full-Text
Keywords: night-shift worker; healthcare worker; light; sleepiness; meta-analysis; nurses night-shift worker; healthcare worker; light; sleepiness; meta-analysis; nurses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, C.-J.; Huang, T.-Y.; Ou, S.-F.; Shiea, J.-T.; Lee, B.-O. Effects of Lighting Interventions to Improve Sleepiness in Night-Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare 2022, 10, 1390. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081390

AMA Style

Wu C-J, Huang T-Y, Ou S-F, Shiea J-T, Lee B-O. Effects of Lighting Interventions to Improve Sleepiness in Night-Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare. 2022; 10(8):1390. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Chi-Jen, Tai-Yang Huang, Su-Fei Ou, Jen-Taie Shiea, and Bih-O Lee. 2022. "Effects of Lighting Interventions to Improve Sleepiness in Night-Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Healthcare 10, no. 8: 1390. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081390

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