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Healthcare 2013, 1(1), 84-95; doi:10.3390/healthcare1010084
Review

B-Mode Ultrasound Imaging, Doppler Imaging, and Real-Time Elastography in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Lymph Node Metastases

1,* , 2
 and 3
1 The Department of Clinical Physiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka 411-8777, Japan 2 The Department of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka 411-8777, Japan 3 The Department of Dermatology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka 411-8777, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanoma and Neoplasms of Skin)
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Abstract

Examination by ultrasonography (US) is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, and even portable technique for confirming the presence of tumors. However, US is not routinely used worldwide for the diagnostic work-up of cutaneous malignant melanoma. High-resolution US using a 6–14 MHz or 5–13 MHz linear transducer enables the preoperative assessment of tumor size and thickness. Compared with physical examination, US is also very effective in the early detection of lymph node metastases. It can be easily repeated for the follow-up of cutaneous malignant melanoma and lymph node metastases. Ultrasonographic appearance of some lymph nodes may overlap, thus producing diagnostic pitfalls. In such cases with overlapping findings, Doppler imaging and elastography may additionally facilitate the evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma and lymph node metastases. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) finally helps to confirm ultrasonographic results, thus improving the specificity and sensitivity in difficult situations in which US alone gives unclear results in lymph node assessment.
Keywords: cutaneous malignant melanoma; lymph node metastases; B-mode ultrasound imaging; Doppler imaging; real-time elastography cutaneous malignant melanoma; lymph node metastases; B-mode ultrasound imaging; Doppler imaging; real-time elastography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Kiyohara, Y. B-Mode Ultrasound Imaging, Doppler Imaging, and Real-Time Elastography in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Lymph Node Metastases. Healthcare 2013, 1, 84-95.

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