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Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging
Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (IPHT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, Jena 07745, Germany
Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany
Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, Jena 07743, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2013; in revised form: 30 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) belongs to the most frequent human neoplasms. Its exposed location facilitates a fast ambulant treatment. However, in the clinical practice far more lesions are removed than necessary, due to the lack of an efficient pre-operational examination procedure: Standard imaging methods often do not provide a sufficient spatial resolution. The demand for an efficient in vivo imaging technique might be met in the near future by non-linear microscopy. As a first step towards this goal, the appearance of NMSC in various microspectroscopic modalities has to be defined and approaches have to be derived to distinguish healthy skin from NMSC using non-linear optical microscopy. Therefore, in this contribution the appearance of ex vivo NMSC in a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging—referred as multimodal imaging—is described. Analogous to H&E staining, an overview of the distinct appearances and features of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in the complementary modalities is derived, and is expected to boost in vivo studies of this promising technological approach.
Keywords: CARS; TPEF; SHG; multimodal imaging; coherent Raman scattering; skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; non-melanoma skin cancer
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Heuke, S.; Vogler, N.; Meyer, T.; Akimov, D.; Kluschke, F.; Röwert-Huber, H.-J.; Lademann, J.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J. Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging. Healthcare 2013, 1, 64-83.
Heuke S, Vogler N, Meyer T, Akimov D, Kluschke F, Röwert-Huber H-J, Lademann J, Dietzek B, Popp J. Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging. Healthcare. 2013; 1(1):64-83.
Heuke, Sandro; Vogler, Nadine; Meyer, Tobias; Akimov, Denis; Kluschke, Franziska; Röwert-Huber, Hans-Joachim; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen. 2013. "Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging." Healthcare 1, no. 1: 64-83.