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Article

Advances in the Approximation of the Matrix Hyperbolic Tangent

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Instituto de Instrumentación para Imagen Molecular, Universitat Politècnica de València, Av. dels Tarongers, 14, 46011 Valencia, Spain
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Instituto de Telecomunicación y Aplicaciones Multimedia, Universitat Politècnica de València, Ed. 8G, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universitat Politècnica de València, Ed. 8G, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Computer Systems and Computation, Universitat Politècnica de València, Ed. 1F, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mariano Torrisi
Mathematics 2021, 9(11), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111219
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Methods, Modelling and Applications)
In this paper, we introduce two approaches to compute the matrix hyperbolic tangent. While one of them is based on its own definition and uses the matrix exponential, the other one is focused on the expansion of its Taylor series. For this second approximation, we analyse two different alternatives to evaluate the corresponding matrix polynomials. This resulted in three stable and accurate codes, which we implemented in MATLAB and numerically and computationally compared by means of a battery of tests composed of distinct state-of-the-art matrices. Our results show that the Taylor series-based methods were more accurate, although somewhat more computationally expensive, compared with the approach based on the exponential matrix. To avoid this drawback, we propose the use of a set of formulas that allows us to evaluate polynomials in a more efficient way compared with that of the traditional Paterson–Stockmeyer method, thus, substantially reducing the number of matrix products (practically equal in number to the approach based on the matrix exponential), without penalising the accuracy of the result. View Full-Text
Keywords: matrix functions; matrix hyperbolic tangent; matrix exponential; Taylor series; matrix polynomial evaluation matrix functions; matrix hyperbolic tangent; matrix exponential; Taylor series; matrix polynomial evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibáñez, J.; Alonso, J.M.; Sastre, J.; Defez, E.; Alonso-Jordá, P. Advances in the Approximation of the Matrix Hyperbolic Tangent. Mathematics 2021, 9, 1219. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111219

AMA Style

Ibáñez J, Alonso JM, Sastre J, Defez E, Alonso-Jordá P. Advances in the Approximation of the Matrix Hyperbolic Tangent. Mathematics. 2021; 9(11):1219. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111219

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ibáñez, Javier, José M. Alonso, Jorge Sastre, Emilio Defez, and Pedro Alonso-Jordá. 2021. "Advances in the Approximation of the Matrix Hyperbolic Tangent" Mathematics 9, no. 11: 1219. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111219

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