Next Article in Journal
Innovative Platform for Designing Hybrid Collaborative & Context-Aware Data Mining Scenarios
Next Article in Special Issue
Logarithmic Decay of Wave Equation with Kelvin-Voigt Damping
Previous Article in Journal
A Decentralized Framework for Parameter and State Estimation of Infiltration Processes
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Dirichlet Problem of Hessian Equation in Exterior Domains
Open AccessArticle

Boundary Value Problems for a Class of First-Order Fuzzy Delay Differential Equations

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Mathematics 2020, 8(5), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8050683
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 28 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Analysis and Partial Differential Equation)

Abstract

In this paper, we study a class of fuzzy differential equations with variable boundary value conditions. Applying the upper and lower solutions method and the monotone iterative technique, we provide some sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions, which can be applied to discuss some dynamical models in biology and economics.
Keywords: fuzzy delay differential equations; boundary value problem; upper and lower solutions; monotone iterative technique fuzzy delay differential equations; boundary value problem; upper and lower solutions; monotone iterative technique

1. Introduction

Delay differential equations are frequently used to study system models in biology, economics, physics, engineering and so on [1]. However, deterministic differential equations cannot be applied to systems with uncertainty. For example, if the dynamical system depends upon a subjective decision, state variables or parameters will be inaccuracies [2]. To consider these issues in mathematical models, we might need to utilize the aspect of fuzziness.
Fuzzy differential equations have been studied frequently during the last few years. We can find many papers concerned with the existence of solutions for fuzzy differential equations. With the strongly generalized differentiability concept introduced in [3,4], B. Bede et al. presented a variation of constants formulas for first-order, linear, fuzzy differential equations in [5]. Based on these results, some new theorems about the existence of fuzzy differential equations were obtained. We refer to [6,7,8,9] and the references therein.
The upper and lower solutions method is considered an important way to study fuzzy differential equations. For example, R. Rodríguez-López et al. discussed initial value problems of fuzzy differential equations with the upper and lower solutions method in [10,11], R. Alikhani and F. Bahrami [9] discussed a first-order, nonlinear, fuzzy integro-differential equation by using the upper and lower solutions method.
We can also find some new results about fuzzy delay differential equations. A. Khastan et al. studied the existence of solutions to an initial value problem of the fuzzy delay differential equation in [12]. Some other results can be found in [13,14,15]. The methods involved in these papers are fixed point theories, the variation of constants method and the upper and lower solutions method.
In [7,16,17], J. J. Nieto and R. Rodríguez-López studied boundary value problems of fuzzy differential equations. For example, the authors considered periodic boundary value conditions in [7]
u ( t ) + a ( t ) u ( t ) = σ ( t ) , t [ 0 , T ] \ { t 1 , t 2 , , t m } , u ( t k + ) = ( 1 L k ) u ( t k ) + d k , k = 1 , 2 , , m , λ u ( 0 ) = u ( T ) + b ,
where { t 1 , t 2 , , t m } [ 0 , T ] , a , σ are piecewise continuous on [ 0 , T ] . The authors changed the fuzzy differential Equation (1) into two crisp ordinary differential equations, which were deduced from the level set equations of Equation (1). A similar method also had been used to study periodic boundary value problems in [6,18,19].
In general, there are few papers discussing fuzzy delay differential equations, especially the boundary value problems of fuzzy delay differential equations. In our previous work [20], we studied boundary value problems x ( t ) = f ( t , x ( t ) ) , x ( 0 ) = α x ( T ) , where α R \ { 0 , ± 1 } . From then on, we can find few papers on the topics of fuzzy differential equations with variable parameters in the boundary value conditions. Motivated by [12,13,14,15], we will extend the results in our previous work [20] to the fuzzy delay differential equation.
In the present paper, we consider
x ( t ) = f ( t , x ( λ ( t ) ) ) , t [ 0 , T ] , x ( 0 ) = α x ( T ) ,
where f C ( [ 0 , T ] × R F , R F ) , λ C ( [ 0 , T ] , [ 0 , T ] ) , α R \ { 0 , ± 1 } . Applying the upper and lower solutions method and the monotone iterative technique, we provide some sufficient conditions for the existence of maximal and minimal solutions to (2). The results can be applied to discuss some dynamical models in biology. At the end of this paper, we provide an example to verify our results.

2. Preliminaries

Let R F be the class of fuzzy subsets of the real axis, u : R [ 0 , 1 ] , which satisfies:
(i)
t 0 R , u ( t 0 ) = 1 ( n o r m a l i t y ) ;
(ii)
s [ 0 , 1 ] and t 1 , t 2 R , u ( s t 1 + ( 1 s ) t 2 ) min { u ( t 1 ) , u ( t 2 ) } ( c o n v e x f u z z y ) ;
(iii)
u is upper semi-continuous on R ;
(iv)
The closure of { t R | u ( t ) > 0 } is compact.
Let [ u ] r = { t R | u ( t ) r } for r ( 0 , 1 ] , [ u ] 0 = { t R | u ( t ) > 0 } ¯ , where A ¯ means the closure of A. [ u ] r is also written as [ u r , u + r ] .
For every u , v R F , D ( u , v ) = sup r [ 0 , 1 ] max { | u r v r | , | u + r v + r | } is known as a Hausdorff distance on R F and ( R F , D ) is a complete metric space.
Lemma 1
([5]). Let u , v , w , e R F , D ( u + v , w + e ) D ( u , w ) + D ( v , e ) .
If f : [ a , b ] R F is continuous, then f is bounded; that is, there exists M > 0 such that D ( f ( t ) , 0 ˜ ) M for every t [ a , b ] . Let C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) be the set of continuous functions on [ a , b ] . For every f , g C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) , we set d ( f , g ) = max t [ a , b ] D ( f ( t ) , g ( t ) ) , then ( C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) , d ) is a complete metric space.
Definition 1
([21]). For every u , v R F , if there exists z R F such that u = v + z , then z is said to be the H-difference of u and v. We denote z = u v .
Definition 2
([3,4]). A function f : [ a , b ] R F is a strongly generalized differentiable at t ( a , b ) ; if there exists f ( t ) R F such that h > 0 sufficiently small, H-difference and limits in the following formulas exist with metric D:
(i) 
lim h 0 + f ( t + h ) f ( t ) h = lim h 0 + f ( t ) f ( t h ) h = f ( t )
or
(ii) 
lim h 0 + f ( t ) f ( t + h ) ( h ) = lim h 0 + f ( t h ) f ( t ) ( h ) = f ( t )
or
(iii) 
lim h 0 + f ( t + h ) f ( t ) h = lim h 0 + f ( t h ) f ( t ) ( h ) = f ( t )
or
(iv) 
lim h 0 + f ( t ) f ( t + h ) ( h ) = lim h 0 + f ( t ) f ( t h ) h = f ( t ) .
Lemma 2
([22,23]). Suppose that f , g C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) .
(i) 
[ a b f ( t ) d t ] r = [ a b [ f ( t ) ] r d t , a b [ f ( t ) ] + r d t ] , r [ 0 , 1 ] .
(ii) 
F ( t ) = a t f ( θ ) d θ is differentiable as in the Definition 2(i) and F ( t ) = f ( t ) .
(iii) 
D a b f ( θ ) d θ , a b g ( θ ) d θ a b D ( f ( θ ) , g ( θ ) ) d θ .
Lemma 3.
Let f C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) , denote [ f ( t ) ] r = [ f r ( t ) , f r + ( t ) ] .
(i) 
Suppose that f is differentiable as in the Definition 2(i); then f r , f r + are differentiable and [ f ( t ) ] r = [ f r ( t ) , f r + ( t ) ] .
(ii) 
Suppose that f is differentiable as in the Definition 2(ii); then f r , f r + are differentiable and [ f ( t ) ] r = [ f r + ( t ) , f r ( t ) ] .
Proof. 
(i) is from Theorem 2.5.2 in [8]. The proof of (ii) is similar; here we omit it.  □
Now, we define an ordering relation in R F . u , v R F , we say v u if v r u r and v + r u + r for all r [ 0 , 1 ] . If u , v R F and v u , we denote [ v , u ] = { z R F | v z u } . Similarly, let f , g C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) ; we say f g if f ( t ) g ( t ) , t [ a , b ] . If f g , we denote [ f , g ] = { x C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) | t [ a , b ] , f ( t ) x ( t ) g ( t ) } .
Lemma 4
([9,10,24]). Let u , v , z , w R F , f , g C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) .
(i) 
If v u , z w , then v + z u + w ;
(ii) 
If v u , then c v c u for c ( 0 , + ) and c u c v for c ( , 0 ) ;
(iii) 
If f g , then a t f ( θ ) d θ a t g ( θ ) d θ , t [ a , b ] ;
(iv) 
If f g and u ( 1 ) a t f ( θ ) d θ , u ( 1 ) a t g ( θ ) d θ exist for t [ a , b ] , then u ( 1 ) a t f ( θ ) d θ u ( 1 ) a t g ( θ ) d θ ;
(v) 
If { f n } C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) , f n g and f n f * , then f * g ;
(vi) 
If { f n } C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) , f n f n + 1 and there exists a subsequence { f n k } { f n } satisfying f n k f * , then f n f * .
For every f C ( [ a , b ] , R F ) and r [ 0 , 1 ] , let [ m f ] r = min t [ a , b ] [ f ( t ) ] r , min t [ a , b ] [ f ( t ) ] 1 , [ M f ] r = max t [ a , b ] [ f ( t ) ] + 1 , max t [ a , b ] [ f ( t ) ] + r . By directly calculation, we can check that m f , M f R F and m f M f .
Definition 3.
Let x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) . x is said to be (i) or (ii)-differentiable, if x is strongly generalized differentiable as in the Definition 2(i) or (ii).
Lemma 5
([20]). Let f C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) be nontrivial; that is, f r ( t ) / f r + ( t ) for t [ 0 , T ] and r [ 0 , 1 ] .
(i) 
Boundary value problem x ( t ) = f ( t ) , x ( 0 ) = α x ( T ) has (i)-differentiable solution only if α ( 1 , 1 ) and the solution can be written as
x ( t ) = α 2 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ ) d θ + 0 t f ( θ ) d θ , α ( 1 , 0 ] , α 1 α 0 T f ( θ ) d θ + 0 t f ( θ ) d θ , α ( 0 , 1 ) .
(ii) 
Boundary value problem x ( t ) = f ( t ) , x ( 0 ) = α x ( T ) has (ii)-differentiable solution only if α ( , 1 ) ( 1 , + ) and the solution can be written as
x ( t ) = α 2 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ ) d θ 0 t ( f ( θ ) ) d θ , α ( , 1 ) , α 1 α 0 T f ( θ ) d θ 0 t ( f ( θ ) ) d θ , α ( 1 , + ) .

3. Existence of Solutions to x ( t ) = f ( t , x ( λ ( t ) ) ) , x ( 0 ) = α x ( T )

We consider sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to (2) in this section.
Definition 4.
Let v , u C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) and v u . x is said to be a maximal(minimal) solution to (2) in [ v , u ] , if x satisfies (2) and any other solution y to (2) in [ v , u ] satisfies y x ( y x ) .
Lemma 6.
Suppose that g C 1 ( [ 0 , T ] , R ) , α ( 0 , 1 ) .
(i) 
If g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) and t ( 0 , T ) , g ( t ) 0 , then g ( t ) 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] ;
(ii) 
If g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) and t ( 0 , T ) , g ( t ) 0 , then g ( t ) 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] .
Proof. 
To prove (i), we firstly assume that g ( t ) < 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] , then g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) > g ( T ) . This is contrary to g ( t ) 0 .
Suppose that g ( T ) < 0 and there exists t 1 [ 0 , T ) such that g ( t 1 ) 0 . This is also contrary to g ( t ) 0 . On the other hand, g ( T ) 0 provides g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) 0 . Then by g ( t ) 0 , we have g ( t ) g ( 0 ) 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] .
To prove (ii), let G = g ; then G satisfies all conditions in (i). As a result, g ( t ) 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] , that is, g ( t ) 0 , t [ 0 , T ] . □
Lemma 7.
Suppose that g C 1 ( [ 0 , T ] , R ) , α ( 1 , + ) .
(i) 
If g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) and t ( 0 , T ) , g ( t ) 0 , then g ( t ) 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] ;
(ii) 
If g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) and t ( 0 , T ) , g ( t ) 0 , then g ( t ) 0 for all t [ 0 , T ] .
Proof. 
(i) If g ( T ) < 0 , then g ( 0 ) α g ( T ) < g ( T ) , it is contrary to g ( t ) 0 on ( 0 , T ) . By g ( T ) 0 and g ( t ) 0 on [ 0 , T ] , we have g ( t ) g ( T ) 0 , t [ 0 , T ] .
(ii) Let G ( t ) = g ( t ) . (i) provides G ( t ) 0 on [ 0 , T ] ; that is, g ( t ) 0 on [ 0 , T ] . Therefore, (ii) is also true. □
Theorem 1.
Suppose that α ( 0 , 1 ) , f C ( [ 0 , T ] × R F , R F ) .
(i) 
There exist (i)-differentiable functions u , v C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying v u and
u ( t ) f ( t , u ( λ ( t ) ) ) , u ( 0 ) α u ( T ) ,
v ( t ) f ( t , v ( λ ( t ) ) ) , v ( 0 ) α v ( T ) .
(ii) 
t [ 0 , T ] , f ( t , · ) is nondecreasing in [ m v , M u ] and satisfies
D ( f ( t , x ) , f ( t , y ) ) φ ( t ) · D ( x , y ) , x , y [ m v , M u ] ,
where φ C ( [ 0 , T ] , [ 0 , ) ) and 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ < 1 α .
Then there exist maximal and minimal (i)-differentiable solutions to (2) in [ v , u ] .
Proof. 
Referring to (3), we denote
A x ( t ) = α 1 α 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + 0 t f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ .
Apparently, x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) , A x is (i)-differentiable and A x ( 0 ) = α A x ( T ) . By Lemma 5(i), any x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying A x = x is also a (i)-differentiable solution to (2).
Here we claim that A is nondecreasing in the interval [ v , u ] . In fact, let x , y [ v , u ] and x y , nondecreasing property of f provides that f ( t , x ( λ ( t ) ) ) f ( t , y ( λ ( t ) ) ) , t [ 0 , T ] . We can conclude from Lemma 6(v) that
0 t f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ 0 t f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ , t [ 0 , T ] .
Together with Lemma 4(i), we obtain that A x ( t ) A y ( t ) , t [ 0 , T ] . Consequently, A is nondecreasing in [ v , u ] .
Now we demonstrate that v A v A u u . A v A u can be deduced directly by nondecreasing property of A, we just need to prove v A v and A u u .
By (6) and the definition of A, we have
v ( t ) f ( t , v ( λ ( t ) ) ) = ( A v ) ( t ) ,
v ( 0 ) α v ( T ) , A v ( 0 ) = α A v ( T ) .
Lemma 3(i) and (8) imply that r [ 0 , 1 ] ,
v r ( t ) ( A v ) r ( t ) , v r + ( t ) ( A v ) r + ( t ) .
On the other hand, (9) implies that
v r ( 0 ) α v r ( T ) , v r + ( 0 ) α v r + ( T ) ,
( A v ) r ( 0 ) = α ( A v ) r ( T ) , ( A v ) r + ( 0 ) = α ( A v ) r + ( T ) .
Let p ( t ) = ( A v ) r ( t ) v r ( t ) , q ( t ) = ( A v ) r + ( t ) v r + ( t ) . (10), (11) and (12) provide that
p ( t ) 0 , p ( 0 ) α p ( T ) ,
q ( t ) 0 , q ( 0 ) α q ( T ) .
By Lemma 5(i), t [ 0 , T ] , p ( t ) 0 , q ( t ) 0 ; that is, A v v . A u u can be proven with the analogous method.
Now we turn to consider sequences { A n v } and { A n u } . By nondecreasing property of A and v A v , A u u , we have
v A v A 2 v A n v A n u A 2 u u .
t [ 0 , T ] and m > n > 1 , Lemma 1, Lemma 2(iii) and (7) imply that
D ( A n v ( t ) , A m v ( t ) ) 1 1 α 0 T D ( f ( θ , A n 1 v ( λ ( θ ) ) ) , f ( θ , A m 1 v ( λ ( θ ) ) ) ) d θ 1 1 α 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ · d ( A n 1 v , A m 1 v ) 1 1 α 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ n · d ( v , A m n v ) 1 1 α 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ n · d ( v , u ) .
That is, { A n v } is a Cauchy sequence. According to the completeness of C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) , { A n v } is convergent; that is, there exists v * C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) such that { A n v } converges uniformly to v * . Easily we can check that v * satisfies A v * = v * . As a result, v * is a (i)-differentiable solution to (2). An analogous result can be obtained for { A n u } .
Suppose that A n u u * and x [ v , u ] is also a (i)-differentiable solution to (2); that is, A x = x . Applying nondecreasing property of A, we have A n v x A n u for n 1 . Lemma 4(v) implies v * x u * . Consequently, v * , u * are minimal and maximal (i)-differentiable solutions for (2) in the interval [ v , u ] . □
Theorem 2.
Suppose that α ( 1 , + ) , f C ( [ 0 , T ] × R F , R F ) .
(i) 
There exist (ii)-differentiable functions u , v C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying v u ,
u ( t ) f ( t , u ( λ ( t ) ) ) , u ( 0 ) α u ( T ) ;
v ( t ) f ( t , v ( λ ( t ) ) ) , v ( 0 ) α v ( T ) .
(ii) 
t [ 0 , T ] , f ( t , · ) is decreasing on [ m v , M u ] and satisfies
D ( f ( t , x ) , f ( t , y ) ) φ ( t ) · D ( x , y ) , x , y [ m v , M u ] ,
where φ C ( [ 0 , T ] , [ 0 , ) and α 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ < α 1 .
Then there exist maximal and minimal (ii)-differentiable solutions for (2) in [ v , u ] .
Proof. 
Referring to (4), we denote
B x ( t ) = α 1 α 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ 0 t ( 1 ) f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ = 1 α 1 0 t ( 1 ) f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α α 1 t T ( 1 ) f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ .
For every x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) , B x is (ii)-differentiable and B x ( 0 ) = α B x ( T ) . Lemma 5(ii) implies that any x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying B x = x is a (ii)-differentiable solution to (2). Here we prove that B is nondecreasing in the interval [ v , u ] .
Let x , y [ v , u ] and x y . Lemma 4(ii) and the decreasing property of f provide that ( 1 ) f ( t , x ( λ ( t ) ) ) ( 1 ) f ( t , y ( λ ( t ) ) ) for every t [ 0 , T ] . By Lemma 4(iii) and (iv), we have B x ( t ) B y ( t ) , t [ 0 , T ] . That is, B is nondecreasing on [ v , u ] .
Now, we prove v B v , B u u . By (16), we have
v ( t ) f ( t , v ( λ ( t ) ) ) = ( B v ) ( t ) ,
v ( 0 ) α v ( T ) , B v ( 0 ) = α B v ( T ) .
Then Lemma 3(ii) and (18) imply that
v r ( t ) ( B v ) r ( t ) , v r + ( t ) ( B v ) r + ( t ) , r [ 0 , 1 ] .
Hence, (19), (20) and Lemma 7(ii) imply that v B v . Similarly, we can also prove that B u u .
Applying the same method in the proof of Theorem 1, we can prove that there exist maximal and minimal (ii)-differentiable solutions to (2) in the interval [ v , u ] . □
If α ( , 0 ) , the upper and lower solutions method can not be applied directly. In fact, referring to (3) and (4), the corresponding integral operators for α ( 1 , 0 ) and α ( , 1 ) can be written as
F x ( t ) = α 2 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + 0 t f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ ,
H x ( t ) = α 2 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ 0 t ( f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) ) d θ .
The nondecreasing or nonincreasing properties of f are not enough to guarantee the monotonicity of F and H; we need more hypotheses to discuss the existence of solution to (2).
x , y C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) and t [ 0 , T ] , we denote
F ˜ ( x , y ) ( t ) = α 2 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + 0 t f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ .
Theorem 3.
Suppose that α ( 1 , 0 ) , f C ( [ 0 , T ] × R F , R F ) .
(i) 
There exist v , u C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying v u and F ˜ ( v , u ) , F ˜ ( u , v ) [ v , u ] .
(ii) 
t [ 0 , T ] , f ( t , · ) is nondecreasing or nonincreasing on [ m v , M u ] and satisfies
D ( f ( t , x ) , f ( t , y ) ) φ ( t ) · D ( x , y ) , x , y [ m v , M u ] ,
where φ C ( [ 0 , T ] , [ 0 , ) and 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ < 1 + α .
Then there exists at least one (i)-differentiable solution for (2) in [ v , u ] .
Proof. 
x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) , F x is (i)-differentiable and F x ( 0 ) = α F x ( T ) . Moreover, Theorem 2 implies that any x C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying F x = x is also a (i)-differentiable solution to (2). We will prove that F is contraction mapping on [ v , u ] and F [ v , u ] [ v , u ] .
For every t [ 0 , T ] and x , y [ v , u ] , (21) provides that
D ( F x ( t ) , F y ( t ) ) 1 1 + α 0 T D ( f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) , f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) ) d θ 1 1 + α 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ · d ( x , y ) .
Condition (ii) implies that F is contraction mapping on [ v , u ] .
On the other hand, F [ v , u ] [ F ˜ ( v , u ) , F ˜ ( u , v ) ] if f ( t , · ) is nondecreasing for all t [ 0 , T ] ; F [ v , u ] [ F ˜ ( u , v ) , F ˜ ( v , u ) ] if f ( t , · ) is nonincreasing for all t [ 0 , T ] . Condition (i) guarantees that F [ v , u ] [ v , u ] .
By Banach contraction mapping principle, there exists at least one (i)-differentiable solution for (2) in the interval [ v , u ] . □
Let x , y C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) and t [ 0 , T ] ; we denote
H ˜ ( x , y ) ( t ) = α 2 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ 0 t ( f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) ) d θ .
Theorem 4.
Suppose that α ( , 1 ) , f C ( [ 0 , T ] × R F , R F ) .
(i) 
There exist v , u C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) satisfying v u and H ˜ ( v , u ) , H ˜ ( u , v ) [ v , u ] .
(ii) 
t [ 0 , T ] , f ( t , · ) is nondecreasing or nonincreasing on [ m v , M u ] and satisfies
D ( f ( t , x ) , f ( t , y ) ) φ ( t ) · D ( x , y ) , x , y [ m v , M u ] ,
where φ C ( [ 0 , T ] , [ 0 , ) and 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ < 1 + 1 α .
Then there exists at least one (ii)-differentiable solution to (2) in [ v , u ] .
Proof. 
For every x , y C ( [ 0 , T ] , R F ) and t [ 0 , T ] , we can check that
H ˜ ( x , y ) ( t ) = 1 1 α 2 0 t f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α 2 1 α 2 t T f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ + α 1 α 2 0 T f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) d θ .
Consequently, H [ v , u ] [ H ˜ ( v , u ) , H ˜ ( u , v ) ] if f ( t , · ) is nondecreasing for all t [ 0 , T ] , H [ v , u ] [ H ˜ ( u , v ) , H ˜ ( v , u ) ] if f ( t , · ) is nonincreasing for all t [ 0 , T ] . Thus, H [ v , u ] [ v , u ] .
On the other hand, for every x , y [ v , u ] and t [ 0 , T ] ,
D ( H x ( t ) , H y ( t ) ) α 1 + α 0 T D ( f ( θ , x ( λ ( θ ) ) ) , f ( θ , y ( λ ( θ ) ) ) ) d θ α 1 + α 0 T φ ( θ ) d θ · d ( x , y ) .
Condition (ii) implies that H has at least one fixed point in [ v , u ] . □

4. Conclusions

First-order delay differential equations are frequently applied to study models in economics, biology and so on. For example, the exponential growth model can be extended to x ( t ) = r x ( λ ( t ) ) . Some researchers try to consider the models in fuzzy cases; there are also some literatures discussing numerical algorithms of boundary value problems of fuzzy differential equations. However, we believe that it is necessary to discuss the existence of solutions before calculating the numerical solutions. In this paper, we provide some sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to fuzzy delay differential equations. The results can be applied to estimate the existence and position of the solutions to fuzzy delay differential equation models.
Now, we introduce an example to verify our theorems.
Example 1.
Consider
x ( t ) = 1 3 · x ( 1 t ) + ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , x ( 0 ) = 1 2 x ( 1 ) .
Let u ( t ) = ( 10 t + 10 ) · ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , v ( t ) = 0 ˜ . We can check that u, v are all (i)-differentiable and
u ( t ) = 10 · ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) 23 3 · [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] 1 3 · u ( 1 t ) + ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , u ( 0 ) = 10 · ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = 1 2 · u ( 1 ) .
In addition,
v ( t ) = 0 ˜ ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = 1 3 · v ( 1 t ) + ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , v ( 0 ) = 0 ˜ = 1 2 v ( 1 ) .
Thus, Theorem 1(i) and (ii) are all satisfied; there exist maximal and minimal (i)-differentiable solutions to (22). We can get the approximate maximal and minimal (i)-differentiable solutions by calculating A n u and A n v .

Funding

This research was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant number 61671063.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the decision to publish the results.

References

  1. Azbelev, N.V.; Maksimov, V.P.; Rakhmatullina, L.F. Introduction to the Theory of Functional Differential Equations and Applications; Hindawi Publishing Co.: Cairo, Egypt, 2007. [Google Scholar]
  2. Barros, L.C.; Bassanezi, R.C.; Tonelli, P.A. Fuzzy modelling in population dynamics. Ecol. Model. 2000, 128, 27–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Bede, B.; Gal, S.G. Generalizations of the differentiability of fuzzy-number-valued functions with applications to fuzzy differential equations. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2005, 151, 581–599. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Bede, B.; Gal, S.G. Almost periodic fuzzy-number-valued functions. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2004, 147, 385–403. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Bede, B.; Rudas, I.J.; Bencsik, A.L. First order linear fuzzy differentail equations under generalized differentiability. Inf. Sci. 2007, 177, 1648–1662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Khastan, A.; Nieto, J.J.; Rodríguez-López, R. Periodic boubdary value problems for first-order linear differential equations with uncertainty under generalized differentiability. Inf. Sci. 2013, 222, 544–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Nieto, J.J.; Rodríguez-López, R. Some results on boundary value problems for fuzzy differential equations with functional dependence. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2013, 230, 92–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Lakshmikantham, V.; Mohapatra, R.N. Theory of Fuzzy Differential Equations and Inclusions; Taylor and Francis: London, UK, 2003. [Google Scholar]
  9. Alikhani, R.; Bahrami, F. Global solutions of fuzzy integro-differential equations under generalized differentiability by the method of upper and lower solutions. Inf. Sci. 2015, 295, 600–608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Rodríguez-López, R. Monotone method for fuzzy differential equations. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2008, 159, 2047–2076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Nieto, J.J.; Rodríguez-López, R. Upper and lower solutions method for fuzzy differential equations. SeMA J. 2010, 51, 125–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Khastan, A.; Nieto, J.J.; Rodríguez-López, R. Fuzzy delay differential equations under generalized differentiability. Inf. Sci. 2014, 275, 145–167. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Lupulescu, V. On a class of fuzzy functional differential equations. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2009, 160, 1547–1562. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Lupulescu, V.; Abbas, U. Fuzzy delay differential equations. Fuzzy Optim. Decis. Mak. 2012, 11, 99–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Shao, Y.; Mou, Q.; Gong, Z. On retarded fuzzy functional differential equations and nonabsolute fuzzy integrals. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2019, 375, 121–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Rodríguez-López, R. On boundary value problems for fuzzy differential equations. Adv. Soft Comput. 2008, 48, 218–225. [Google Scholar]
  17. Nieto, J.J.; Rodríguez-López, R. Existence and uniquness results for fuzzy differential equations subject to boundary value conditions. In Mathematical Models in Engineering, Biology and Medicine: Proceedings of the International Conference on Boundary Value Problems; American Institute of Physics: College Park, MD, USA, 2009; pp. 264–273. [Google Scholar]
  18. Rodríguez-López, R. On the existence of solutions to periodic boundary value problems for fuzzy linear differential equations. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2013, 219, 1–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Chen, M.; Li, D.; Xue, X. Periodic problems of first order uncertain dynamical systems. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2011, 162, 67–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Wang, H. Two-point boundary value problems for first-order nonlinear fuzzy differential equation. J. Intell. Fuzzy Syst. 2016, 30, 3335–3347. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Puri, M.; Ralescu, D. Differentials of fuzzy functions. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1983, 91, 552–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Wu, C.; Gong, Z. On Henstock integral of fuzzy-number-valued functions (I). Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2001, 120, 523–532. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Kaleva, O. Fuzzy differential equations. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 1987, 24, 301–317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Rodríguez-López, R. Comparison results for fuzzy differential equations. Inf. Sci. 2008, 178, 1756–1779. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Back to TopTop