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Open AccessArticle

Clusters in Separated Tubes of Tilted Dipoles

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849, USA
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
3
Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
4
Institute for Nuclear Physics, Technical University Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
5
Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mathematics 2020, 8(4), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040484
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Various Routes towards Few-Body Physics)
A few-body cluster is a building block of a many-body system in a gas phase provided the temperature at most is of the order of the binding energy of this cluster. Here we illustrate this statement by considering a system of tubes filled with dipolar distinguishable particles. We calculate the partition function, which determines the probability to find a few-body cluster at a given temperature. The input for our calculations—the energies of few-body clusters—is estimated using the harmonic approximation. We first describe and demonstrate the validity of our numerical procedure. Then we discuss the results featuring melting of the zero-temperature many-body state into a gas of free particles and few-body clusters. For temperature higher than its binding energy threshold, the dimers overwhelmingly dominate the ensemble, where the remaining probability is in free particles. At very high temperatures free (harmonic oscillator trap-bound) particle dominance is eventually reached. This structure evolution appears both for one and two particles in each layer providing crucial information about the behavior of ultracold dipolar gases. The investigation addresses the transition region between few- and many-body physics as a function of temperature using a system of ten dipoles in five tubes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cold dipolar molecules; Few-body to many-body crossover; harmonic approximation cold dipolar molecules; Few-body to many-body crossover; harmonic approximation
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Armstrong, J.R.; Jensen, A.S.; Volosniev, A.G.; Zinner, N.T. Clusters in Separated Tubes of Tilted Dipoles. Mathematics 2020, 8, 484.

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