The Academic Impacts of 2015 Nepal Earthquake: Evidence from Two Secondary Schools in Sindhupalchok District
2. Literature Review
- Earthquake-induced human loss and property loss adversely impact the academic achievement of school students in rural areas.
- The subjective wellbeing or the happiness level of the students significantly affect their academic achievement.
- While there is a significant relationship between students’ personal as well as family background (such as age, number of siblings, parents’ level of education, and land sufficiency) and academic achievement, the earthquake disproportionately impacts students from different backgrounds.
- As households and communities are highly dispersed in rural areas, the “time required to reach school” is a significant predictor of students’ academic achievement. Similarly, the academic impact of the earthquake is greater for the students who live farther from the school.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. The Participants and Their Demographics
3.2. The Questionnaire Used
3.3. The Use of OHQ
3.4. Methods of Administering the Questionnaire
3.5. Method of Analysis of the Data
4.1. Descriptive Analysis
4.2. Students’ Academic Performance before and after the Earthquake
4.3. Impacts of the Earthquake on Academic Performance
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Student Questionnaire (Translated from Nepali into English)
Appendix A.1. Background Information of Respondents
- Please write your name: _________________ Today’s date: ______________________
- Your school’s name: ___________________ Grade: ____ Age: ____ Gender: ____
- Which caste/ethnic group do you belong to?
- What language do you speak at home?
- How many brothers and sisters do you have?
- What are your parents’ main job/occupation? (In case of others, please specify).
|(a) Father’s Job/Occupation||(b) Mother’s Job/Occupation|
|(3)Own business||(3)Own business|
|(4)Foreign employment||(4)Foreign employment|
|(6)Others: _________||(6)Others: _________|
- What is the highest level of education your father and mother has completed?
|(a) Fathers’ Education||(b) Mothers’ Education|
|(2)Only literate||(2)Only literate|
|(3)Primary level||(3)Primary level|
|(5)University level||(5)University level|
- (a) Does your family own land?
- Please circle the items that your family own. (You can circle more than one item.)
- How long does it take to you to get to your school from your home?
- For your study, are you staying in rented room?
- In general, what is the average number of hours per night you spend to study/do assignments?
- How long do you involve in household chores in a day in average?
- (a) Do you want to go abroad for work? If yes, when?
- What do you want to be in the future?
- What level of education do you want to achieve?
Appendix A.2. Questions Related to 2015 Nepal Earthquake
- Please specify the human loss in your family. ____ injured. ____ died.
- What was the damage level of your house?
|1. No Damage||2. Little Damage|
|3. Some Damage|
|4. Huge Damage|
|5. Full Damage|
- After the earthquake, an idea of establishing common settlement had been discussed. Do you think it is a good thing for your community?
- Are there any adverse effects of the earthquake in your and your family’s health?
|5||Your family’s agricultural production.|
|6||Your family’s income from employment and or business.|
|7||Your family’s daily expenses.|
|8||School’s physical facilities and environment.|
|9||School’s educational environment.|
|10||Study environment at home.|
|11||Condition of social harmony.|
|12||Anti-social activities such as looting and theft.|
|13||Your family’s ability to cope with disasters.|
|14||Love and affection to your own life.|
|15||Your love and respect to your parents.|
|16||Love and care from your parents to you.|
|17||Your love and care to your siblings.|
|18||Your siblings love and care to you.|
|19||Emotional connection with your neighbors and community.|
|20||Your sense of community service.|
|21||Your sense of patriotism.|
|22||Your interest in study or learning (education).|
Appendix A.3. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ)
|Statements||Fully Disagree||Generally Disagree||Somewhat Disagree||Somewhat Agree||Generally Agree||Fully Agree|
|1||I am satisfied with myself.|
|2||I give more attention to other people.|
|3||I think I had gained many things in my life.|
|4||I feel friendship to most of all people.|
|5||I do not feel bad while I wake up in the morning.|
|6||I have no hope about my future.|
|7||I like most of the things.|
|8||I always work hard to gain something in my life.|
|9||Life is good.|
|10||I do not feel that this place is good for human.|
|11||I laugh a lot.|
|12||I am satisfied with most parts of my life.|
|13||I do not think I can achieve any significant progress living in this place.|
|14||I could not achieve most of my desired works.|
|15||I do not think that I have control on my life.|
|16||I always feel good and happy.|
|17||I do not feel easy to make a decision.|
|18||I do not think that my life has any purpose.|
|19||I feel unlimited power within myself.|
|20||I have good effect in the society.|
|21||I cannot get along with other people easily.|
|22||Mostly, I do not feel myself healthy.|
|23||I do not have much memory of happy experiences.|
|24||I am happy with my other family members.|
|25||I think children will achieve big successes in their life.|
|26||I am not so hopeless despite the last earthquake.|
|Source: Steve Wright’s blog, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Available online: http://www.meaningandhappiness.com/oxford-happiness-questionnaire/214/ (accessed on 17 January 2021).|
Appendix B. Correlation Matrix of Dependent and Independent Variables
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|Grade 8||Grade 9||Total|
|Saraswati Secondary School||13||13||14||10||50|
|Sarada Secondary School||44||36||38||35||139|
|Score||Meaning||Brief Interpretation and Advice|
|1–2||Not happy||Respondent probably see their situation as worse than it really is. The person might have depression.|
|2–3||Somewhat unhappy||The respondent may need counselling.|
|3–4||Not particularly happy or unhappy||A score of 3.5 is the exact numerical average of the range of the possible answer, 1 to 6. People in this group can improve their happiness level significantly with some mental exercise.|
|4||Somewhat happy or moderately happy||Satisfied. An average person’s score remains around 4.|
|4–5||Rather happy; pretty happy||The person is happy.|
|5–6||Very happy||Such people are more likely to receive benefits such as better health, better relationships and achieving life goals.|
|6||Too happy||This is not a likely score.|
|Variables||Obs||Mean||Std. Dev.||Std. Error||Effect Size:|
Cohen’s d Value
|Average test score (%) before the earthquake (EQ)||189||55.0||11.0||0.81||−0.32|
|Average test score (%) after the earthquake (EQ)||189||47.9||12.5||0.91||−0.12|
|The difference in average test score (%)(Pre EQ score–Post EQ score)||189||7.1||4.6||0.33||0.13|
|Potential moderators (dummy variables are not included)|
|Damage level of house||189||3.4||1.1||0.10||−0.01|
|Age of respondent (student)||189||14.6||1.1||0.10||0.12|
|Level of happiness||189||3.9||0.6||0.04||−0.11|
|Number of siblings||189||3.4||1.8||0.13||−0.08|
|Level of father’s education||189||2.7||1.2||0.09||−0.18|
|Level of mother’s education||189||2.0||1.1||0.08||−0.39|
|Time required to reach school||189||1.8||0.9||0.07||−0.11|
Average Test Score
after the Earthquake (EQ)
Drop in Av. Test Score
(Pre EQ Score–Post EQ Score)
|Human loss dummy variable|
(1 if someone died or injured within the family of the respondent, 0 otherwise)
|−2.426 * (0.677)||0.432 * (0.292)|
|Damage level of house||−0.119 (0.907)||0.892 ** (0.184)|
|Age of respondent||0.917 (0.888)||0.152 (0.324)|
|Level of happiness||1.497 * (0.482)||−0.147 * (0.185)|
|Number of siblings||−1.213 *** (0.329)||0.0562 (0.193)|
|Level of father’s education||−0.636 (0.976)||0.122 (0.356)|
|Level of mother’s education||2.178 ** (1.037)||−0.568 * (0.178)|
|Land sufficiency||0.623 (0.788)||0.062 (0.287)|
|Time required to reach school||−1.272 (1.042)||0.623 * (0.18)|
|Dummy if respondent is from Sharada school||1.437 ** (0.520)||3.122 *** (0.846)|
|Dummy if respondent is female||3.767 ** (1.845)||−0.644 (0.672)|
|Dummy if respondent is Chhetri||−4.45(3.522)||0.517 (1.283)|
|Dummy if respondent is Newar||0.848 (4.379)||0.192 (1.596)|
|Dummy if respondent is Janajati||−4.083 (3.587)||0.134 (1.307)|
|Dummy if respondent is Dalit||−10.99 (7.963)||0.852 (2.902)|
|Constant||32.15 ** (16.03)||0.631 (5.843)|
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Sapkota, J.B.; Neupane, P. The Academic Impacts of 2015 Nepal Earthquake: Evidence from Two Secondary Schools in Sindhupalchok District. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 371. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080371
Sapkota JB, Neupane P. The Academic Impacts of 2015 Nepal Earthquake: Evidence from Two Secondary Schools in Sindhupalchok District. Education Sciences. 2021; 11(8):371. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080371Chicago/Turabian Style
Sapkota, Jeet Bahadur, and Pramila Neupane. 2021. "The Academic Impacts of 2015 Nepal Earthquake: Evidence from Two Secondary Schools in Sindhupalchok District" Education Sciences 11, no. 8: 371. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080371