An Environmental Education and Communication Project on Migratory Fishes and Fishing Communities
1.1. Study Area
1.2. The Cooperminho
2.1. Environmental Education
2.2. Communication (Social Media)
3.1. Environmental Education
- The total variable meets three of the four requirements for using parametric test: It meets the principle of homogeneity (of variances); the sample is greater than 30 and it is a scale; however, the values of the variable are not normally distributed, according to the Shapiro–Wilk test results;
- However, following Luepsen , parametric tests (ANOVA) offer similar robustness to non-parametric tests (Pearson Chi-square) with variables not normally distributed.
4.1. Environmental Education
- Non-formal education—regular visits and contacts with the EEF Aquamuseu do Rio Minho, as part of intentional education. The correct answers related to the otter occurred because there is an otter in this aquarium. Besides, a visit was booked to ECOMARE, the Innovation and Sustainability Laboratory of Marine Resources of the University of Aveiro, an infrastructure that connects the port of Aveiro with the coastal lagoon of Ria de Aveiro to help conserve, protect, and ensure the sustainable use of marine resources. The importance of informal education towards an active OEL goes in line with Schubel and Schubel  for which this type of educational institutions is more and more committed to “engage, educate and empower the public in moving from ocean” and estuarine “issues to solutions”  (this activity was cancelled due to the COVID19 restrictions);
- Informal education—fishing activity with family members and in daily contact with the river habitat and endogenous bioresources. The cultural knowledge and LEK from this fishing community contributes to direct students’ knowledge of Minho River and its biodiversity. Cultural knowledge, and Students’ local knowledge present a high potential for motivating those students in the curriculum. Besides, Cultural knowledge and LEK it is more and more valued by the Portuguese scientific community, such as by Braga et al. [1,2] and Stratoudakis et al. . Moreover, in the first session, students and teachers shared that the fish allis shad is still so common and part of the local culture that the school’s canteen offers a typical dish of that fish (Fried shad/Sável Frito) every week.
- Integrating OEL in formal and non-formal education. “Incorporating interactive ocean science lessons based around the Ocean Literacy into standard school curriculum would be an effective solution to creating a generation of ocean-literate young people (…) around the world”.  (p. 106). The discipline of Natural Sciences could be adapted to the community, ecoregion, and geography where the students belong, to associate each theme more easily with the specific region’s characteristics, in this case, the Minho River;
- Valuing cultural knowledge and LEK of students and their family members regarding fishing activities. Knowledge and rationalities traditionally ignored by some sectors of the scientific community  should also be integrated in the curriculum (e.g., plural knowledge and LEK). Results also show the need for embracing other local stakeholders regarding education on socioeconomic aspects of the fishing traditions, in line with Baptista and El-Hani ;
- Promoting teachers’ training in ocean and estuarine literacy, as well as a dialogue with the scientific community. As Mogias et al.  found “Pre-service teachers possessed a moderate knowledge of ocean sciences issues and positive attitudes toward ocean stewardship”  (p. 251). This means that there is a predisposition and potential of learning and communicate to have ocean literate students. Besides, the education of interconnectivity and training on trans-disciplinarity appear to be a key factor to enhance students with a holistic and systemic OEL . Following Lambert , “students of teachers who integrated biological, chemical, geological, and physical characteristics of the oceans performed higher on the content assessment than other students”  (p. 633);
- Developing further approaches to this pre-experiment process—quantitative experiments of post-test with several school groups and a control group, as well a qualitative methodological tool as complement. Studies about representations (of students, teachers, parents with fishing activity, and local citizens) on ocean and estuarine realities and on empirical pedagogy of interconnectivity and LEK integration would enforce future strategies on OEL and riverine heritage in the region involved;
- Finally, complementing the communication part of this kind of projects with other social media, more locally focused.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sub-Themes||Examples of Contents/Events on Facebook|
|Disclosure of events||The Project and the Aquamuseu|
Participation in national and international conferences
Celebrations (e.g., Fisherman’s Day; gastronomic festivals)
Calls to the ethnographic collection of local fisheries (photographs, reports, etc.)
|Ecology of migratory species||Ecology of the shad|
Ecology of the sea lamprey
|Sociocultural and economic aspects|
|Preliminary results on the interviews with fishermen about migratory species|
Description of the “Algerife” fishing gear
Advertisements on recreational fishing in the Minho River (e.g., context of the COVID 19 pandemic)
Presentations and Publications with description notes
Historical facts about lamprey fishing
Testimonies from fishermen about the stock of lamprey due to the closure of restaurants (COVID 19) and announcement of the resumption
|Educational Intervention||Activities with the middle School of VN Cerveira|
Description of the intervention (2 sessions)
|Project Products||Dissemination of books: “Peixes do Rio Minho: Receitas com História”; children’s book “The adventures of the wise Eel and her friend Lamprey”|
Dissemination of scientific illustration contest “Rio Minho, biodiversity and fishing gear”
|Does not satisfy||<5.00|
|FB Profile Items||Sub-Items||Number|
|I. Account profile||Publications||73|
|II. People reaching||Minimum||139|
|Average of viewers per publication||1174.14 (± 1344.62)|
|III. Posts of Photos||Viewers||778|
|Clicks on publications||47|
|IV. Posts of Videos||Viewers||607|
|Clicks on publications||62|
|V. Audience per gender||Women||52%|
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Carvalho, S.C.; Braga, H.O.; de Santa-Maria, S.; Fonte, B.; Pereira, M.J.; García-Vinuesa, A.; Azeiteiro, U.M. An Environmental Education and Communication Project on Migratory Fishes and Fishing Communities. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11070337
Carvalho SC, Braga HO, de Santa-Maria S, Fonte B, Pereira MJ, García-Vinuesa A, Azeiteiro UM. An Environmental Education and Communication Project on Migratory Fishes and Fishing Communities. Education Sciences. 2021; 11(7):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11070337Chicago/Turabian Style
Carvalho, Sara Costa, Heitor Oliveira Braga, Sofia de Santa-Maria, Beatriz Fonte, Mário Jorge Pereira, Antonio García-Vinuesa, and Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro. 2021. "An Environmental Education and Communication Project on Migratory Fishes and Fishing Communities" Education Sciences 11, no. 7: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11070337