Exploring Indigenous Science to Identify Contents and Contexts for Science Learning in Order to Promote Education for Sustainable Development
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1. Science in a Multicultural Perspective and ISc
2.2. ISc as a Sociocultural Context for Science Learning to Promote ESD
2.3. ESD in Science Education and Related Pedagogical Approaches
- Authenticity: the topic is authentic when it is up-to-date and currently being discussed within society and public media.
- Relevance: the topic is relevant if respective decisions are to come that will affect the current or future lives of students or other citizens within society
- Evaluation is undetermined in socio-scientific respect: the public perception of the issue includes different points of view that are part of the public debate.
- Allows for open discussion: the topic can openly be discussed in a public debate without harming individuals or groups in society.
- Deals with questions from science and technology: this topic concerns itself with a techno-scientific query.
3. Materials and Methods
6. Implications and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- King, D. New Perspectives on Context-Based Chemistry Education: Using a Dialectical Sociocultural Approach to View Teaching and Learning. Stud. Sci. Educ. 2012, 48, 51–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gilbert, J.K. On the Nature of “Context” in Chemical Education. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 2006, 28, 957–976. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Forawi, S.A. Science Teacher Professional Development Needs in the United Arab Emirates. In Science Education in the Arab Gulf States: Visions, Sociocultural Contexts and Challenges; Mansour, N., Al-Shamrani, S., Eds.; Sense: Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 49–68. [Google Scholar]
- Khaddoor, R.; Al-Amoush, S.; Eilks, I. A Comparative Analysis of the Intended Curriculum and Its Presentation in 10th Grade Chemistry Textbooks from Seven Arabic Countries. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 2017, 18, 375–385. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Snively, G.; Williams, W.L. Knowing Home: Braiding Indigenous Science with Western Science, Book 1; University of Victoria: Victoria, BC, Canada, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Sjöström, J.; Eilks, I.; Zuin, V.G. Towards Eco-Reflexive Science Education. Sci. & Educ. 2016, 25, 321–341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huaman, E.S. Tuki Ayllpanchik (Our Beautiful Land): Indigenous Ecology and Farming in the Peruvian Highlands. Cult. Stud. Sci. Educ. 2016, 11, 1135–1153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parmin, P.; Sajidan, S.; Ashadi, A.; Sutikno, S.; Fibriana, F. Science Integrated Learning Model to Enhance the Scientific Work Independence of Student Teacher in Indigenous Knowledge Transformation. J. Pend. IPA Ind. 2017, 6, 365–372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rahmawati, Y.; Ridwan, A. Nurbaity, Should We Learn Culture in Chemistry Classroom? Integration Ethnochemistry in Culturally Responsive Teaching. AIP Conf. Proc. 2017, 1868, 30009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bermudez, G.M.; Battistón, L.V.; Capocasa, M.C.G.; De Longhi, A.L. Sociocultural Variables That Impact High School Students’ Perceptions of Native Fauna: A Study on the Species Component of the Biodiversity Concept. Res. Sci. Educ. 2017, 47, 203–235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burmeister, M.; Rauch, F.; Eilks, I. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Chemistry Education. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 2012, 13, 59–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Holbrook, J.; Rannikmae, M. Context-Based Teaching and Socio-Scientific Issues. In Science Education: An International Course Companion; Taber, K.S., Akpan, B., Eds.; Sense: Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; pp. 279–294. [Google Scholar]
- Stuckey, M.; Hofstein, A.; Mamlok-Naaman, R.; Eilks, I. The Meaning of ‘Relevance’ in Science Education and its Implications for the Science Curriculum. Stud. Sci. Educ. 2013, 49, 1–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eilks, I.; Hofstein, A. Combining the Question of the Relevance of Science Education with the Idea of Education for Sustainable Development. In Science Education Research and Education for Sustainable Development; Eilks, I., Markic, S., Ralle, B., Eds.; Shaker: Aachen, Germany, 2014; pp. 3–14. [Google Scholar]
- Sjöström, J.; Rauch, F.; Eilks, I. Chemistry Education for Sustainability. In Relevant Chemistry Education: From Theory to Practice; Eilks, I., Hofstein, A., Eds.; Sense: Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 163–184. [Google Scholar]
- Zidny, R.; Sjöström, J.; Eilks, I. A Multi-Perspective Reflection on How Indigenous Knowledge and Related Ideas Can Improve Science Education for Sustainability. Sci. & Educ. 2020, 29, 145–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zidny, R.; Eilks, I. Indigenous Knowledge as a Socio-Cultural Context of Science to Promote Transformative Education for Sustainable Development: A Case Study on the Baduy Community (Indonesia). In Building Bridges Across Disciplines for Transformative Education and a Sustainable Future; Eilks, I., Markic, S., Ralle, B., Eds.; Shaker: Aachen, Germany, 2018; pp. 249–256. [Google Scholar]
- Juntunen, M.; Aksela, M. Education for Sustainable Development in Chemistry–Challenges, Possibilities and Pedagogical Models in Finland and Elsewhere. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 2014, 15, 488–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marks, R.; Eilks, I. Promoting Scientific Literacy Using a Sociocritical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching: Concept, Examples, Experiences. Int. J. Env. Sci. Educ. 2009, 4, 231–245. [Google Scholar]
- Kim, E.-J.A.; Dionne, L. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Science Education and Its Integration in Grades 7 and 8 Canadian Science Curriculum Documents. Can. J. Sci. Math. Techn. Educ. 2014, 14, 311–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aikenhead, G.S. Science Education: Border Crossing into the Subculture of Science. Stud. Sci. Educ. 1996, 27, 1–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ogawa, M. Science Education in a Multiscience Perspective. Sci. Educ. 1995, 79, 583–593. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stephens, S. Handbook for Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum; Alaskan Native Knowledge Network: Fairbanks, AK, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Fasasi, R.A. Effects of Ethnoscience Instruction, School Location, and Parental Educational Status on Learners’ Attitude towards Science. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 2017, 39, 548–564. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNESCO. Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (LINKS). Available online: https://en.unesco.org/links (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- Lozano, R. Envisioning Sustainability Three-Dimensionally. J. Clean. Prod. 2008, 16, 1838–1846. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zeidler, D.L.; Sadler, T.D.; Simmons, M.L.; Howes, E.V. Beyond STS: A Research-Based Framework for Socioscientific Issues Education. Sci. Educ. 2005, 89, 357–377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sadler, T.D.; Barab, S.A.; Scott, B. What Do Students Gain by Engaging in Socioscientific Inquiry? Res. Sci. Educ. 2007, 37, 371–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Simonneaux, J.; Simonneaux, L. Educational Configurations for Teaching Environmental Socioscientific Issues within the Perspective of Sustainability. Res. Sci. Educ. 2012, 42, 75–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stolz, M.; Witteck, T.; Marks, R.; Eilks, I. Reflecting Socio-Scientific Issues for Science Education Coming from the Case of Curriculum Development on Doping in Chemistry Education. Eurasia J. Math. Sci. Techn. Educ. 2013, 9, 361–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mayring, P. Qualitative content analysis: Theoretical background and procedures. In Approaches to Qualitative Research in Mathematics Education; Bikner-Ahsbahs, A., Knipping, C., Presmeg, N.C., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 365–380. [Google Scholar]
- Ichwandi, I.; Shinohara, T. Indigenous Practices for Use of and Managing Tropical Natural Resources: A Case Study on Baduy Community in Banten, Indonesia. Tropics 2007, 16, 87–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Iskandar, J.; Iskandar, B.S. Various Plants of Traditional Rituals: Ethnobotanical Research among the Baduy Community. Biosaintifika J. Biol. Biol. Educ. 2017, 9, 114–125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Braun, V.; Clarke, V. Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qual. Res. Psych. 2006, 3, 77–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Garrison, D.R.; Cleveland-Innes, M.; Koole, M.; Kappelman, J. Revisiting Methodological Issues in Transcript Analysis: Negotiated Coding and Reliability. Internet High. Educ. 2006, 9, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kuckartz, U. Qualitative Text. Analysis: A Guide to Methods, Practice and Using Software; Sage: Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Senthilkumar, S.; Deepa, K.; Suganya, T.; Janakarajan, J.; Muralidharan, J.; Vasanthakumar, P. Therapeutic Properties of Noni (Morinda Citrifolia) and Its Products. Int. J. Sci. Environ. Techn. 2016, 5, 1496–1502. [Google Scholar]
- Singh, M.; Gidwani, B.; Gupta, A.; Dhongade, H.; Kaur, C.; Kashyap, P.; Tripathi, D. A Review of the Medicinal Plants of Genus Orthosiphon (Lamiaceae). Int. J. Biol. Chem. 2015, 9, 318–331. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Maugard, T.; Enaud, E.; Choisy, P.; Legoy, M.D. Identification of an Indigo Precursor from Leaves of Isatis Tinctoria (Woad). Phytochemistry 2001, 58, 897–904. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hamburger, M.; Slacanin, I.; Hostettmann, K.; Dyatmiko, W. Acetylated Saponins with Molluscicidal Activity from Sapindus Rarak: Unambiguous Structure Determination by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Quantitative Analysis. Phytochem Anal. 1992, 3, 231–237. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Atabani, A.; Badruddin, I.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Chong, W.; Lee, K.T. Pangium Edule Reinw: A Promising Non-Edible Oil Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Arab. J. Sci. Engin. 2015, 40, 583–594. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Iskandar, J.; Iskandar, B.S. Ethnoastronomy-The Baduy Agricultural Calendar and Prediction of Environmental Perturbations. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Diversity 2016, 17, 694–703. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koutalidi, S.; Scoullos, M. Biogeochemical Cycles for Combining Chemical Knowledge and ESD Issues in Greek Secondary Schools Part I: Designing the Didactic Materials. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 2016, 17, 10–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mahaffy, P.G.; Matlin, S.A.; Holme, T.A.; MacKellar, J. Systems Thinking for Education about the Molecular Basis of Sustainability. Nature Sustain. 2019, 2, 362–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brayboy, B.M.J.; Maughan, E. Indigenous Knowledges and the Story of the Bean. Harvard Educ. Rev. 2009, 79, 1–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sjöström, J.; Eilks, I. Reconsidering different visions of scientific literacy and science education based on the concept of Bildung. In Cognition, Metacognition, and Culture in STEM Education; Dori, Y.J., Mevarech, Z.R., Baker, D.R., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2018; Volume 24, pp. 65–88. [Google Scholar]
- Zidny, R.; Eilks, I. Integrating perspectives from indigenous knowledge and Western science in secondary and higher chemistry learning to contribute to sustainability education. Sustain. Chem. Pharm. 2020, 16, 100229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNCED. Agenda 21 | Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available online: https://sdgs.un.org/publications/agenda21 (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- UN. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development | Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available online: https://sdgs.un.org/publications/transforming-our-world-2030-agenda-sustainable-development-17981 (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- UNESCO. UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, 2005–2014: The DESD at a Glance–UNESCO Digital Library. Available online: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000141629 (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- Queiruga-Dios, M.Á.; López-Iñesta, E.; Diez-Ojeda, M.; Sáiz-Manzanares, M.C.; Dorrío, J.B.V. Citizen science for scientific literacy and the attainment of sustainable development goals in formal education. Sustainabiliy 2020, 12, 4283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Benavent, X.; De Ves, E.; Forte, A.; Botella-Mascarell, C.; López-Iñesta, E.; Rueda, S.; Roger, S.; Perez, J.; Portalés, C.; Dura, E.; et al. Girls4STEM: Gender Diversity in STEM for a Sustainable Future. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6051. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNESCO. Education for Sustainable Development Country Guidelines for Changing the Climate of Teacher Education to Address Sustainability: Putting Transformative Education into Practice. Available online: https://bit.ly/3baYl6v (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- Eilks, I.; Sjöström, J.; Hofstein, A. Relevant Chemistry Education for Sustainability. Daruna 2017, 44, 18–29. [Google Scholar]
- Aikenhead, G.; Michell, H. Bridging Cultures: Indigenous and Scientific Ways of Knowing Nature; Pearson: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Tejedor, G.; Segalàs, J.; Rosas-Casals, M. Transdisciplinarity in Higher Education for Sustainability: How Discourses Are Approached in Engineering Education. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 175, 29–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
|Themes||ISc of the Baduy Community||Science Background||Related Science Content||Suggested Educational Level|
|Agriculture||The Baduy community uses plants as biopesticides to control pests in their rice plantations: Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.), Momordica charantia, Achasma walang, Bridelia monoica.||160 phytochemical compounds in Noni fruit have been explored for possible benefits, such as antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, or antinematode function .||Chemistry: organic compounds, pesticides, phytochemistry, chemical analysis|
Biology: classification of plants, bioactivity of compounds, bioassay, biodiversity
|Higher education and upper secondary school|
|Medicine||Some medicinal plants are used by the outer Baduy community to treat different diseases. For example, Orthosiphon aristatus, a species in the family of Lamiaceae is used .||Phytochemicals in Orthosiphon aristatus have been isolated, which have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, analgesic, and nephroprotective activity. These include terpenes, organic acids, and flavonoids .||Chemistry: phytochemistry, chemical analysis, organic chemistry|
Biology: biodiversity of medicinal plants, classification of plants, bioassay, bioactivity of compounds
|Higher education and upper secondary school|
|Natural dyes||Craftsmen in Baduy society use natural dyes from plants for their distinctive clothing (Batik Baduy) such as indigo from the leaf of Indigofera tinctoria.||Indigo is formed in damaged leaves by the oxidation of hydrolysis products of various precursors such as indican (indoxyl-β-D-glucoside) or isatan B (indoxyl ketogluconate) to indoxyl .|
The process is affected by the activity of decomposing bacterial enzymes.
|Chemistry: chemistry of dyes, chemical reactions, chemical extraction|
Biology: classification of plants, enzyme activity, natural dyes
|Junior high and upper secondary school|
|Household cleaning materials||Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), soap nuts (Sapindus rarak), Pteris vittate, and Mischocarpus fuscescens are used for body cleaning products.||The pericarps of soap nuts (Sapindus rarak) contain saponins, high-molecular-weight glycosides consisting of a sugar moiety linked to an aglycone . Saponins have detergent or surfactant properties, because they contain both water-soluble and fat-soluble components.||Chemistry: chemistry of detergents, solubility|
Physics: surface tension
Biology: classification of plants
|Junior high and upper secondary school|
|Renewable energy||The Baduy people have no access to electricity and fossil fuels such as kerosene for lighting. They extract the oil from the fruits of picung (Pangium edule) and make it into oil for lamps .||Pangium edule contains methyl esters that can be considered a future biodiesel source. This biodiesel produces cloud, pour, and cold filter plugging points of −6, −4 and −8 °C, respectively. This shows the viability of using this biodiesel in cold countries .||Chemistry: organic chemistry, chemistry of biofuels|
Physics: environmental thermodynamics.
enzyme activity in esterification reactions
|Upper secondary school and higher education|
|Astronomy||The Baduy have culturally maintained the traditional calendar (Pranata Mangsa) for the swidden farming cycle (slash-and-burn agriculture). The most important constellations for the Baduy community are Orion (Bintang Kidang) and the Pleiades (Bintang Kartika).||The stars of the Pleiades usually appear two weeks before the appearance of Orion, when the sun is in the northern hemisphere. According to the Baduy, this is when the land is cold. In comparison, when Orion begins to set on the western horizon and cannot be seen, rice should not be grown, because the soil is hot, and many insect pests appear at this time .||Physics: astronomy, stars and the solar system, Keppler’s laws of planetary motion, Newton’s laws of gravity.|
Biology: plant physiology, swidden farming (slash-and-burn agriculture)
|Junior high and upper secondary school|
|Themes||Potential Topic||Sustainability Aspect to be Learned|
|Agriculture||Bio-rational control of pest insects using indigenous materials vs. synthetic pesticides||Learning about risk-benefit analysis between synthetic and green pesticides|
Green chemistry approaches to isolate and explore eco-benign pesticides
|Medicine||Investing in research on traditional medicinal plants as starting points for chemical drug development||Comparison of risks and benefits regarding modern, Western and traditional medicine|
|Natural dye||Natural dyes from local plants: chemistry applications and sustainability assessment||Risks of chemical textile dyes and eco-friendly alternatives from ISc|
|Household cleaning materials||Using plant-based biodegradable compounds from ISc as household chemical||Addressing the issues of water pollution and considering alternative biodegradable household chemicals from ISc|
|Renewable energy||Oil lamp from ISc (Pangium edule Reinw.): A nonedible oil feedstock for biodiesel production.||Issues associated with fossil fuel use and renewable energy sources from plants|
|Astronomy||The role of ethnoastronomy to the determine rice planting and harvest times as a response to climate change.||Introducing the issue of climate change effects to the agricultural season and reflectively adapting land use to mitigate harmful effects by comparing ISc and modern, Western science.|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Zidny, R.; Solfarina, S.; Aisyah, R.S.S.; Eilks, I. Exploring Indigenous Science to Identify Contents and Contexts for Science Learning in Order to Promote Education for Sustainable Development. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030114
Zidny R, Solfarina S, Aisyah RSS, Eilks I. Exploring Indigenous Science to Identify Contents and Contexts for Science Learning in Order to Promote Education for Sustainable Development. Education Sciences. 2021; 11(3):114. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030114Chicago/Turabian Style
Zidny, Robby, S Solfarina, Ratna Sari Siti Aisyah, and Ingo Eilks. 2021. "Exploring Indigenous Science to Identify Contents and Contexts for Science Learning in Order to Promote Education for Sustainable Development" Education Sciences 11, no. 3: 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030114