- freely available
Economies 2018, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies6010005
2.1. Data Sources
3.1. Descriptive Statistics: Asia’s Scale in the Low-Carbon Economy
3.2. Asia’s Competitiveness in the Low-Carbon Economy
3.3. The Low-Carbon Economy in East Asia
3.3.1. South Korea’s Low-Carbon Economy
3.3.2. Japan’s Low-Carbon Economy
3.3.3. China’s Low-Carbon Economy
Conflicts of Interest
|Y02B||Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildings, including housing and appliances or related end-user applications||Integration of renewables in buildings, lighting, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), home appliances, elevators and escalators, constructional or architectural elements, Information and Commuication Technologies , power management||Y02B10—renewables integration|
|Y02C||Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gases||Carbon dioxide capture and storage, also of other relevant greenhouse gases||-|
|Y02E||Climate change mitigation technologies in energy generation, transmission and distribution||Renewable energy, efficient combustion, nuclear energy, biofuels, efficient transmission and distribution, energy storage, hydrogen technology||Y02E10—renewables|
|Y02T||Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportation||E-mobility, hybrid cards, efficient internal combustion engines, efficient technologies in railways and air/waterways transport||Y02T10—road transport|
|Y04S||Smart grid technologies||Power networks operation, end-user applications management, smart metering, electric and hybrid vehicles interoperability, trading and marketing aspects||-|
|Low-carbon||Additional Energy Sources|
|Alternative Fuel Vehicle|
|Carbon Capture & Storage|
|Wave & Tidal|
|Contaminated Land Reclamation & Remediation|
|Environmental Consultancy and Related Services|
|Environmental Monitoring, Instrumentation and Analysis|
|Marine Pollution Control|
|Noise & Vibration Control|
|Recovery and Recycling|
|Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment|
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The categorising of ‘threats’ and ‘opportunities’ rests on the implicit assumption that an ‘innovation specialisation’ is preferable over an ‘export specialisation’, if a country were to only have one. This assumption can be challenged but is based on the fact that the value that is accrued from IP often exceeds that which is accrued from exports.
Other Asian countries could not individually be represented on this chart because they undertake very low levels of high-value CCMT patenting activity for which we could not meaningfully calculate a green innovation score.
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