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Open AccessArticle

Wake-Model Effects on Induced Drag Prediction of Staggered Boxwings

1
School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
2
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B2K3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Faculty of Aerospace Technology, FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences, 52064 Aachen, Germany.
Aerospace 2018, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace5010014
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Aerospace)
For staggered boxwings the predictions of induced drag that rely on common potential-flow methods can be of limited accuracy. For example, linear, freestream-fixed wake models cannot resolve effects related to wake deflection and roll-up, which can have significant affects on the induced drag projection of these systems. The present work investigates the principle impact of wake modelling on the accuracy of induced drag prediction of boxwings with stagger. The study compares induced drag predictions of a higher-order potential-flow method that uses fixed and relaxed-wake models, and of an Euler-flow method. Positive-staggered systems at positive angles of attack are found to be particularly prone to higher-order wake effects due to vertical contraction of wakes trajectories, which results in smaller effective height-to-span ratios than compared with negative stagger and thus closer interactions between trailing wakes and lifting surfaces. Therefore, when trying to predict induced drag of positive staggered boxwings, only a potential-flow method with a fully relaxed-wake model will provide the high-degree of accuracy that rivals that of an Euler method while being computationally significantly more efficient. View Full-Text
Keywords: wake-model; boxwing; induced drag; potential-flow theory wake-model; boxwing; induced drag; potential-flow theory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schirra, J.; Bissonnette, W.; Bramesfeld, G. Wake-Model Effects on Induced Drag Prediction of Staggered Boxwings. Aerospace 2018, 5, 14.

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