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Aerospace 2016, 3(1), 6;

Turbulence Effects on Modified State Observer-Based Adaptive Control: Black Kite Micro Aerial Vehicle

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260, USA
CSIR–National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560017, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Wing
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Unmanned Aerial Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5966 KB, uploaded 5 February 2016]   |  


This paper presents the implementation of a modified state observer-based adaptive dynamic inverse controller for the Black Kite micro aerial vehicle. The pitch and velocity adaptations are computed by the modified state observer in the presence of turbulence to simulate atmospheric conditions. This state observer uses the estimation error to generate the adaptations and, hence, is more robust than model reference adaptive controllers which use modeling or tracking error. In prior work, a traditional proportional-integral-derivative control law was tested in simulation for its adaptive capability in the longitudinal dynamics of the Black Kite micro aerial vehicle. This controller tracks the altitude and velocity commands during normal conditions, but fails in the presence of both parameter uncertainties and system failures. The modified state observer-based adaptations, along with the proportional-integral-derivative controller enables tracking despite these conditions. To simulate flight of the micro aerial vehicle with turbulence, a Dryden turbulence model is included. The turbulence levels used are based on the absolute load factor experienced by the aircraft. The length scale was set to 2.0 meters with a turbulence intensity of 5.0 m/s that generates a moderate turbulence. Simulation results for various flight conditions show that the modified state observer-based adaptations were able to adapt to the uncertainties and the controller tracks the commanded altitude and velocity. The summary of results for all of the simulated test cases and the response plots of various states for typical flight cases are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: modified state observer; adaptive control; micro aerial vehicle modified state observer; adaptive control; micro aerial vehicle

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S. R. Pappu, V.; Steck, J.E.; Ramamurthi, G. Turbulence Effects on Modified State Observer-Based Adaptive Control: Black Kite Micro Aerial Vehicle. Aerospace 2016, 3, 6.

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