- freely available
Aerospace 2015, 2(1), 91-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace2010091
2.1. Aims, Design and Manufacturing—Milly
2.1.1. Airframe, Fins and Nose Cone—Milly
2.1.2. Body and Motor Optimization—Milly
2.1.3. Rocket Recovery and Tracking Systems—Milly
2.2. Parachute Descent 3DOF Modelling—Milly
2.3. University of Canterbury Rocketry Design and Control Course—Smokey
|Category||Parameter||Value (Liftoff, Burnout)|
|Stability||Centre of Pressure||0.80 m|
|Centre of Mass||0.71 m, 0.66 m|
|Stability||1.2 Calibres, 1.8 Calibres|
|Mass||3.0 kg, 2.75 kg|
|Geometry||Rocket Diameter||0.08 m|
|Reference Area||0.005 m2|
|Rocket Length||1.52 m|
|Canard Location||0.3 m|
|Tail Fin Location||1.4 m|
|Canard Radial Distance||0.06 m|
|Nozzle Location||1.5 m|
|Total impulse||440 Ns|
|Avg. thrust||217 N|
|Max. thrust||386 N|
|Burn time||2.02 s|
|Launch mass||476 g|
|Empty mass||226 g|
2.3.1. Safety Protocols—Smokey
- NOTAM is lodged with Airways New Zealand
- Safety and Consent forms are filled for University of Canterbury administration
- High-visibility vests are worn by all on site
- Safety glasses are worn when working with or near explosive charges
- A fire blanket, fire extinguisher and water container are available on site
- First Aid certification must be held by someone on site
- The parachute charge is inside the nose cone; the nose must always be pointed away from other people when handling the rocket
- Continuity of the ignition leads is checked before connecting the explosive charge
- Check for aircraft immediately before launching
- Remain in the bunker during launch until it is deemed safe to leave
- Bring the fire extinguisher to the landing site when recovering the rocket
- If the rocket misfires, remain in the bunker for 60 s before approaching the launch guide
2.3.2. Electronic Housing 3D Printing Assignment—Smokey
2.3.3. Machining of Rocket Parts—Smokey
|A||Motor Centering Ring||Aluminum|
|B||Actuator Housing Cover||Aluminum|
|D||Canard Shaft Bushings||Bronze|
|F||Actuator Base Disk||Aluminum|
|G||Canard Shafts||Stainless Steel|
|H||Chute Strop Pin||Stainless Steel|
|I||Chute Fair Lead||Aluminum|
|L||Ejection Piston Base||Aluminum|
|M||Nose Cone Tip||Aluminum|
|N||Nose Cone Tie Tube||Aluminum|
Microprocessor Change to ARM Cortex-M4 STM32F4
MPU6000 IMU Sensor
Combination of Functionality on One PCB
2.3.5. Actuation Mechanism—Smokey
2.3.6. Parachute Recovery—Smokey
2.3.7. Wind Tunnel Testing—Smokey
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Rocket Launch Setup—Milly
3.2. World Record Results—Milly
3.3. Wind Tunnel PD Control Testing Results—Smokey
3.4. Kaitorete Spit Launch Site and Set up—Smokey
- A derivative controller on roll angle given by Equation (11), implemented throughout flight
- A PD controller on yaw angle given by Equations (12) and (13) but with Ryaw replaced by the measured yaw angle, four seconds after launch detect. Four seconds was chosen since the thrust burn was 2.2 s, and it gives sufficient time for effects of weather cocking and thrust off set to disappear and provides a more conservative test of the controller in conditions of a slower varying velocity.
- Three open-loop step responses of the yaw fin angle defined by:
- An equipment checklist was completed before going to the launch site, this included all gear needed to launch, safety equipment and documentation
- Launch guide was set up
- Rocketry electronics were powered on in idle state; this means there is no risk of the electronics performing in-flight tasks such as canard actuation, logging or parachute deployment
- Rocket was placed inside the launch guide
- Motor ignition cable was laid out and continuity tested
- Base station was set up inside the bunker, and communications were checked
- Motor ignition charge placed inside rocket motor, and armed at the launch guide
- All present assembled inside the bunker for final countdown
3.5. Flight Results—Smokey
drag force (N)
air density (kg m−3)
drag coefficient of parachute (dimensionless)
mass of the rocket with parachute and no fuel
acceleration due to gravity (m s−1)
|vx, vy, vz|
velocities (m s−1) in East, North and vertical directions
|x, y, z|
East and North displacements and altitude above ground level respectively (m)
|vx,R, vy,R, vz,R|
relative wind velocities in East, North and vertical directions (m s−1)
|wx, wy, wz|
wind speeds in East, North and vertical directions (m s−1)
area of parachute (m2)
gravitational constant (m3 kg−1 s−2)
mass of earth (kg)
radius of earth (m)
|x0, y0, z0, vx0, vy0, vz0|
initial conditions at apogee
fin angle actuating roll (rad)
fin angle actuating yaw (rad)
derivative gain on roll (s)
proportional gain on yaw (no unit)
derivative gain on yaw (s)
reference yaw angle (°)
Low earth orbit
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration
University of Canterbury
Three degrees of freedom
Aerospace Trajectory Optimization Software
Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering
Doctorate of Philosophy
Student experimental rocketry
National Centre for Space Studies
Advanced Rockets for Experimental Studies
Projet Etudiant de Recherche Spatiale Europeèn Universitaire Et Scientifique
Cambridge University Space Flight
California Launch Vehicle Education Initiative
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