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Climate 2016, 4(3), 36;

Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jack Barkenbus
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring the Impact of Public-Private Governance for Climate Change)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2383 KB, uploaded 18 July 2016]   |  


Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant). We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon neutral; emissions; climate actions; renewable energy; smart policies carbon neutral; emissions; climate actions; renewable energy; smart policies

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Dahal, K.; Niemelä, J. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Climate 2016, 4, 36.

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