Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
User-Generated Services Composition in Smart Multi-User Environments
Previous Article in Journal
A New Approach to Estimating the Path Loss in Underground Wireless Sensor Networks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 19;

Enhanced IoT-Based End-To-End Emergency and Disaster Relief System

Qatar Mobility Innovations Center (QMIC), Qatar University, Doha P.O. Box. 210531, Qatar
SERCOM Lab, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, P.O. Box 743, La Marsa 2078, Tunisia
Thomas Johann Seebeck Department of Electronics, School of Information Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, P.O. Box 10120 Tallinn, Estonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Actuators in Smart Cities)
PDF [3884 KB, uploaded 21 August 2017]


In this paper, we present a new enhancement for an emergency and disaster relief system called Critical and Rescue Operations using Wearable Wireless sensors networks (CROW 2 ). We address the reliability challenges in setting up a wireless autonomous communication system in order to offload data from the disaster area (rescuers, trapped victims, civilians, media, etc.) back to a command center. The proposed system connects deployed rescuers to extended networks and the Internet. CROW 2 is an end-to-end system that runs the recently-proposed Optimized Routing Approach for Critical and Emergency Networks (ORACE-Net) routing protocol. The system integrates heterogeneous wireless devices (Raspberry Pi, smart phones, sensors) and various communicating technologies (WiFi IEEE 802.11n, Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1) to enable end-to-end network connectivity, which is monitored by a cloud Internet-of-Things platform. First, we present the CROW 2 generic system architecture, which is adaptable to various technologies integration at different levels (i.e., on-body, body-to-body, off-body). Second, we implement the ORACE-Net protocol on heterogeneous devices including Android-based smart phones and Linux-based Raspberry Pi devices. These devices act as on-body coordinators to collect information from on-body sensors. The collected data is then pushed to the command center thanks to multi-hop device-to-device communication. Third, the overall CROW 2 system performance is evaluated according to relevant metrics including end-to-end link quality estimation, throughput and end-to-end delay. As a proof-of-concept, we validate the system architecture through deployment and extracted experimental results. Finally, we highlight motion detection and links’ unavailability prevention based on the recorded data where the main factors (i.e., interference and noise) that affect the performance are analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: tactical multi-hop routing protocol; Internet-of-Things; optimized routing approach for critical and emergency networks; disaster relief system; body-to-body communication tactical multi-hop routing protocol; Internet-of-Things; optimized routing approach for critical and emergency networks; disaster relief system; body-to-body communication

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ben Arbia, D.; Alam, M.M.; Kadri, A.; Ben Hamida, E.; Attia, R. Enhanced IoT-Based End-To-End Emergency and Disaster Relief System. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6, 19.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. EISSN 2224-2708 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top