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Article

Seed Transcriptome Annotation Reveals Enhanced Expression of Genes Related to ROS Homeostasis and Ethylene Metabolism at Alternating Temperatures in Wild Cardoon

1
CONICET/Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, National University of Lomas de Zamora, 1836 Llavallol, Argentina
2
Institute for Agricultural and Forestry Systems in the Mediterranean (ISAFoM), Department of Biology, Agriculture and Food Science (DiSBA), National Research Council (CNR), Via Empedocle, 58, 95128 Catania, Italy
3
Center for Algorithmic Biotechnology, Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg State University, 199004 St. Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work and must be considered both as first author.
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091225
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 9 September 2020 / Accepted: 13 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Dormancy: Molecular Control of Its Induction and Alleviation)
The association among environmental cues, ethylene response, ABA signaling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in the process of seed dormancy release is nowadays well-established in many species. Alternating temperatures are recognized as one of the main environmental signals determining dormancy release, but their underlying mechanisms are scarcely known. Dry after-ripened wild cardoon achenes germinated poorly at a constant temperature of 20, 15, or 10 °C, whereas germination was stimulated by 80% at alternating temperatures of 20/10 °C. Using an RNA-Seq approach, we identified 23,640 and annotated 14,078 gene transcripts expressed in dry achenes and achenes exposed to constant or alternating temperatures. Transcriptional patterns identified in dry condition included seed reserve and response to dehydration stress genes (i.e., HSPs, peroxidases, and LEAs). At a constant temperature, we observed an upregulation of ABA biosynthesis genes (i.e., NCED9), ABA-responsive genes (i.e., ABI5 and TAP), as well as other genes previously related to physiological dormancy and inhibition of germination. However, the alternating temperatures were associated with the upregulation of ethylene metabolism (i.e., ACO1, 4, and ACS10) and signaling (i.e., EXPs) genes and ROS homeostasis regulators genes (i.e., RBOH and CAT). Accordingly, the ethylene production was twice as high at alternating than at constant temperatures. The presence in the germination medium of ethylene or ROS synthesis and signaling inhibitors reduced significantly, but not completely, germination at 20/10 °C. Conversely, the presence of methyl viologen and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a peroxidase inhibitor, partially increased germination at constant temperature. Taken together, the present study provides the first insights into the gene expression patterns and physiological response associated with dormancy release at alternating temperatures in wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris). View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA-Seq; dormancy termination; gene expression; antioxidants; ethylene signaling; environmental signals RNA-Seq; dormancy termination; gene expression; antioxidants; ethylene signaling; environmental signals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huarte, H.R.; Puglia, G.D.; Prjibelski, A.D.; Raccuia, S.A. Seed Transcriptome Annotation Reveals Enhanced Expression of Genes Related to ROS Homeostasis and Ethylene Metabolism at Alternating Temperatures in Wild Cardoon. Plants 2020, 9, 1225. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091225

AMA Style

Huarte HR, Puglia GD, Prjibelski AD, Raccuia SA. Seed Transcriptome Annotation Reveals Enhanced Expression of Genes Related to ROS Homeostasis and Ethylene Metabolism at Alternating Temperatures in Wild Cardoon. Plants. 2020; 9(9):1225. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091225

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huarte, Hector R., Giuseppe. D. Puglia, Andrey D. Prjibelski, and Salvatore A. Raccuia 2020. "Seed Transcriptome Annotation Reveals Enhanced Expression of Genes Related to ROS Homeostasis and Ethylene Metabolism at Alternating Temperatures in Wild Cardoon" Plants 9, no. 9: 1225. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091225

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